Azon Money Method Review and Bonus

Crucifixion is an ancient instrument of capital punishment: the method of slow and painful execution in which the victim is tied or nailed to a large wooden beam and left to hang for several days until eventual death from exhaustion and asphyxiation
It is principally known from antiquity, but remains in occasional use in some countries
The crucifixion of Jesus is a central narrative in Christianity, and the cross (sometimes depicting Jesus nailed onto it) is the main religious symbol for many Christian churches
Ancient Greek has two verbs for crucify: ana-stauro (ἀνασταυρόω), from stauros, “stake”, and apo-tumpanizo (ἀποτυμπανίζω) “crucify on a plank,”[1] together with anaskolopizo (ἀνασκολοπίζω “impale”)
In earlier pre-Roman Greek texts anastauro usually means “impale
New Testament Greek uses four verbs, three of them based upon stauros (σταυρός), usually translated “cross”
The most common term is stauroo (σταυρόω), “to crucify”, occurring 43 times; sustauroo (συσταυρόω), “to crucify with” or “alongside” occurs five times, while anastauroo (ἀνασταυρόω), “to crucify again” occurs only once at the Epistle to the Hebrews 6:6
prospegnumi (προσπήγνυμι), “to fix or fasten to, impale, crucify” occurs only once at the Acts of the Apostles 2:23
The English term cross derives from the Latin word crux
[5] The Latin term crux classically referred to a tree or any construction of wood used to hang criminals as a form of execution
The term later came to refer specifically to a cross
The English term crucifix derives from the Latin crucifixus or cruci fixus, past participle passive of crucifigere or cruci figere, meaning “to crucify” or “to fasten to a cross”
Crucifixion was often performed in order to terrorize and dissuade its witnesses from perpetrating particularly heinous crimes
Victims were left on display after death as warnings to others who might attempt dissent
Crucifixion was usually intended to provide a death that was particularly slow, painful (hence the term excruciating, literally “out of crucifying”), gruesome, humiliating, and public, using whatever means were most expedient for that goal
Crucifixion methods varied considerably with location and time period
The Greek and Latin words corresponding to “crucifixion” applied to many different forms of painful execution, from impaling on a stake to affixing to a tree, to an upright pole (a crux simplex) or to a combination of an upright (in Latin, stipes) and a crossbeam (in Latin, patibulum)
In some cases, the condemned was forced to carry the crossbeam to the place of execution
A whole cross would weigh well over 135 kilos (300 lb), but the crossbeam would not be quite as burdensome, weighing around 45 kilos (100 lb)
[12] The Roman historian Tacitus records that the city of Rome had a specific place for carrying out executions, situated outside the Esquiline Gate,[13] and had a specific area reserved for the execution of slaves by crucifixion
[14] Upright posts would presumably be fixed permanently in that place, and the crossbeam, with the condemned person perhaps already nailed to it, would then be attached to the post
The person executed may have been attached to the cross by rope, though nails are mentioned in a passage by the Judean historian Josephus, where he states that at the Siege of Jerusalem (70), “the soldiers out of rage and hatred, nailed those they caught, one after one way, and another after another, to the crosses, by way of jest
“[15] Objects used in the crucifixion of criminals, such as nails, were sought as amulets with perceived medicinal qualities
While a crucifixion was an execution, it was also a humiliation, by making the condemned as vulnerable as possible
Although artists have traditionally depicted the figure on a cross with a loin cloth or a covering of the genitals, the person being crucified was usually stripped naked
Writings by Seneca the Younger state some victims suffered a stick forced upwards through their groin
[17][18] Despite its frequent use by the Romans, the horrors of crucifixion did not escape mention by some of their eminent orators
Cicero for example, described crucifixion as “a most cruel and disgusting punishment”,[19] and suggested that “the very mention of the cross should be far removed not only from a Roman citizen’s body, but from his mind, his eyes, his ears
Frequently, the legs of the person executed were broken or shattered with an iron club, an act called crurifragium, which was also frequently applied without crucifixion to slaves
[21] This act hastened the death of the person but was also meant to deter those who observed the crucifixion from committing offenses
The gibbet on which crucifixion was carried out could be of many shapes
Josephus describes multiple tortures and positions of crucifixion during the Siege of Jerusalem as Titus crucified the rebels;[23] and Seneca the Younger recounts: “I see crosses there, not just of one kind but made in many different ways: some have their victims with head down to the ground; some impale their private parts; others stretch out their arms on the gibbet
At times the gibbet was only one vertical stake, called in Latin crux simplex
[24] This was the simplest available construction for torturing and killing the condemned
Frequently, however, there was a cross-piece attached either at the top to give the shape of a T (crux commissa) or just below the top, as in the form most familiar in Christian symbolism (crux immissa)
[25] Jehovah’s Witnesses argue that Jesus was crucified on a crux simplex, and that the crux immissa was an invention of Emperor Constantine
[26] Other forms were in the shape of the letters X and Y
Apparently the most ancient image of a Roman crucifixion is a graffito found in a taberna (hostel for wayfarers) in Puteoli, dating to the time of Trajan or Hadrian (late 1st century to early 2nd century CE)
The cross is the T shape
An inscription over the individual’s left shoulder identifies her as “Alkimila
The New Testament writings about the crucifixion of Jesus do not speak specifically about the shape of that cross, but the early writings that do speak of its shape, from about the year 100 CE on, describe it as shaped like the letter T (the Greek letter tau)[28] or as composed of an upright and a transverse beam, sometimes with a small projection in the upright
In popular depictions of the crucifixion of Jesus (possibly because in translations of John 20:25 the wounds are described as being “in his hands”), Jesus is shown with nails in his hands
But in Greek the word “χείρ”, usually translated as “hand”, referred to arm and hand together,[31] and to denote the hand as distinct from the arm some other word was added, as “ἄκρην οὔτασε χεῖρα” (he wounded the end of the χείρ, i
, he wounded her hand)
A possibility that does not require tying is that the nails were inserted just above the wrist, between the two bones of the forearm (the radius and the ulna)
An experiment that was the subject of a documentary on the National Geographic Channel’s Quest For Truth: The Crucifixion,[34] showed that nailed feet provided enough support for the body, and that the hands could have been merely tied
Nailing the feet to the side of the cross relieves strain on the wrists by placing most of the weight on the lower body
Another possibility, suggested by Frederick Zugibe, is that the nails may have been driven in at an angle, entering in the palm in the crease that delineates the bulky region at the base of the thumb, and exiting in the wrist, passing through the carpal tunnel
A foot-rest (suppedaneum) attached to the cross, perhaps for the purpose of taking the person’s weight off the wrists, is sometimes included in representations of the crucifixion of Jesus, but is not discussed in ancient sources
Some scholars interpret the Alexamenos graffito, the earliest surviving depiction of the Crucifixion, as including such a foot-rest
[35] Ancient sources also mention the sedile, a small seat attached to the front of the cross, about halfway down,[36] which could have served a similar purpose
In 1968, archaeologists discovered at Giv’at ha-Mivtar in northeast Jerusalem the remains of one Jehohanan, who had been crucified in the 1st century
The remains included a heel bone with a nail driven through it from the side
The tip of the nail was bent, perhaps because of striking a knot in the upright beam, which prevented it being extracted from the foot
A first inaccurate account of the length of the nail led some to believe that it had been driven through both heels, suggesting that the man had been placed in a sort of sidesaddle position, but the true length of the nail, 11
5 cm (4
53 inches), suggests instead that in this case of crucifixion the heels were nailed to opposite sides of the upright
[37][38][39] The skeleton from Giv’at ha-Mivtar is currently the only recovered example of ancient crucifixion in the archaeological record
The length of time required to reach death could range from hours to days depending on method, the victim’s health, and the environment
A literature review by Maslen and Mitchell[41] identified scholarly support for several possible causes of death: cardiac rupture,[42] heart failure,[43] hypovolemic shock,[44] acidosis,[45] asphyxia,[46] arrhythmia,[47] and pulmonary embolism
[48] Death could result from any combination of those factors or from other causes, including sepsis following infection due to the wounds caused by the nails or by the scourging that often preceded crucifixion, eventual dehydration, or animal predation
A theory attributed to Pierre Barbet holds that, when the whole body weight was supported by the stretched arms, the typical cause of death was asphyxiation
[51] He wrote that the condemned would have severe difficulty inhaling, due to hyper-expansion of the chest muscles and lungs
The condemned would therefore have to draw himself up by his arms, leading to exhaustion, or have his feet supported by tying or by a wood block
When no longer able to lift himself, the condemned would die within a few minutes
Some scholars, including Frederick Zugibe, posit other causes of death
Zugibe suspended test subjects with their arms at 60° to 70° from the vertical
The test subjects had no difficulty breathing during experiments, but did suffer rapidly increasing pain,[52][53] which is consistent with the Roman use of crucifixion to achieve a prolonged, agonizing death
However, Zugibe’s positioning of the test subjects’ feet are not supported by any archaeological or historical evidence
Since death does not follow immediately on crucifixion, survival after a short period of crucifixion is possible, as in the case of those who choose each year as a devotional practice to be non-lethally crucified
There is an ancient record of one person who survived a crucifixion that was intended to be lethal, but that was interrupted
Josephus recounts: “I saw many captives crucified, and remembered three of them as my former acquaintance
I was very sorry at this in my mind, and went with tears in my eyes to Titus, and told him of them; so he immediately commanded them to be taken down, and to have the greatest care taken of them, in order to their recovery; yet two of them died under the physician’s hands, while the third recovered
“[55] Josephus gives no details of the method or duration of the crucifixion of his three friends before their reprieve
Although the ancient Jewish historian Josephus, as well as other sources,[which?] refers to the crucifixion of thousands of people by the Romans, there is only a single archaeological discovery of a crucified body dating back to the Roman Empire around the time of Jesus
This was discovered at Givat HaMivtar, Jerusalem in 1968
[56] It is not necessarily surprising that there is only one such discovery, because a crucified body was usually left to decay on the cross and therefore would not be preserved
The only reason these archaeological remains were preserved was because family members gave this particular individual a customary burial
The remains were found accidentally in an ossuary with the crucified man’s name on it, ‘Jehohanan, the son of Hagakol’
[57][58] Nicu Haas, an anthropologist at the Hebrew University Medical School in Jerusalem, examined the ossuary and discovered that it contained a heel bone with a nail driven through its side, indicating that the man had been crucified
The position of the nail relative to the bone indicates that the feet had been nailed to the cross from their side, not from their front; various opinions have been proposed as to whether they were both nailed together to the front of the cross or one on the left side, one on the right side
The point of the nail had olive wood fragments on it indicating that he was crucified on a cross made of olive wood or on an olive tree
Since olive trees are not very tall, this would suggest that the condemned was crucified at eye level
Additionally, a piece of acacia wood was located between the bones and the head of the nail, presumably to keep the condemned from freeing his foot by sliding it over the nail
His legs were found broken, possibly to hasten his death
It is thought that because in Roman times iron was rare, the nails were removed from the dead body to conserve costs
According to Haas, this could help to explain why only one nail has been found, as the tip of the nail in question was bent in such a way that it could not be removed
Haas had also identified a scratch on the inner surface of the right radius bone of the forearm, close to the wrist
He deduced from the form of the scratch, as well as from the intact wrist bones, that a nail had been driven into the forearm at that position
However, much of Haas’ findings have been challenged
For instance, it was subsequently determined that the scratches in the wrist area were non-traumatic — and, therefore, not evidence of crucifixion —, while reexamination of the heel bone revealed that the two heels were not nailed together, but rather separately to either side of the upright post of the cross
Crucifixion (or impalement), in one form or another, was used by Persians, Carthaginians, and Macedonians
The Greeks were generally opposed to performing crucifixions
[63] However, in his Histories, ix
120–122, the Greek writer Herodotus describes the execution of a Persian general at the hands of Athenians in about 479 BCE: “They nailed him to a plank and hung him up 
this Artayctes who suffered death by crucifixion
“[64] The Commentary on Herodotus by How and Wells remarks: “They crucified him with hands and feet stretched out and nailed to cross-pieces; cf
This barbarity, unusual on the part of Greeks, may be explained by the enormity of the outrage or by Athenian deference to local feeling
Some Christian theologians, beginning with Paul of Tarsus writing in Galatians 3:13, have interpreted an allusion to crucifixion in Deuteronomy 21:22-23
This reference is to being hanged from a tree, and may be associated with lynching or traditional hanging
However, Rabbinic law limited capital punishment to just 4 methods of execution: stoning, burning, strangulation, and decapitation, while the passage in Deuteronomy was interpreted as an obligation to hang the corpse on a tree as a form of deterrence
[66] The fragmentary Aramaic Testament of Levi (DSS 4Q541) interprets in column 6: “God
(partially legible)-will set
right errors
(partially legible)-He will judge
revealed sins
Investigate and seek and know how Jonah wept
Thus, you shall not destroy the weak by wasting away or by
(partially legible)-crucifixion
Let not the nail touch him
The Jewish king Alexander Jannaeus, king of Judea from 103 BCE to 76 BCE, crucified 800 rebels, said to be Pharisees, in the middle of Jerusalem
Alexander the Great is reputed to have crucified 2,000 survivors from his siege of the Phoenician city of Tyre,[70] as well as the doctor who unsuccessfully treated Alexander’s friend Hephaestion
Some historians have also conjectured that Alexander crucified Callisthenes, his official historian and biographer, for objecting to Alexander’s adoption of the Persian ceremony of royal adoration
In Carthage, crucifixion was an established mode of execution, which could even be imposed on generals for suffering a major defeat
The hypothesis that the Ancient Roman custom of crucifixion may have developed out of a primitive custom of arbori suspendere—hanging on an arbor infelix (“inauspicious tree”) dedicated to the gods of the nether world—is rejected by William A
Oldfather, who shows that this form of execution (the supplicium more maiorum, punishment in accordance with the custom of our ancestors) consisted of suspending someone from a tree, not dedicated to any particular gods, and flogging him to death
[74] Tertullian mentions a 1st-century CE case in which trees were used for crucifixion,[75] but Seneca the Younger earlier used the phrase infelix lignum (unfortunate wood) for the transom (“patibulum”) or the whole cross
[76] Plautus and Plutarch are the two main sources for accounts of criminals carrying their own patibulum to the upright stipes
Crucifixion was used to punish slaves, pirates, and enemies of the state
It was considered the most shameful and disgraceful way to die
Condemned Roman citizens were usually exempt from crucifixion except when they were being punished for major crimes against the state, such as high treason
[citation needed]
Death was often hastened by human action
“The attending Roman guards could only leave the site after the victim had died, and were known to precipitate death by means of deliberate fracturing of the tibia and/or fibula, spear stab wounds into the heart, sharp blows to the front of the chest, or a smoking fire built at the foot of the cross to asphyxiate the victim
Notorious mass crucifixions followed the Third Servile War in 73–71 BCE (the slave rebellion under Spartacus), other Roman civil wars in the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE, and the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE
Crassus crucified 6,000 of Spartacus’ followers hunted down and captured after his defeat in battle
[78] Josephus tells a story of the Romans crucifying people along the walls of Jerusalem
He also says that the Roman soldiers would amuse themselves by crucifying criminals in different positions
In Roman-style crucifixion, the condemned could take up to a few days to die
Under ancient Roman penal practice, crucifixion was also a means of exhibiting the criminal’s low social status
It was the most dishonourable death imaginable, originally reserved for slaves, hence still called “supplicium servile” by Seneca, later extended to citizens of the lower classes (humiliores)
[citation needed] The citizen class of Roman society were almost never subject to capital punishments; instead, they were fined or exiled
Josephus mentions Jews of high rank who were crucified, but this was to point out that their status had been taken away from them
The Romans often broke the prisoner’s legs to hasten death and usually forbade burial
[citation needed]
Occasionally, scourging preceded crucifixion, which would cause the condemned to lose a large amount of blood, and approach a state of shock
The convict then usually had to carry the horizontal beam (patibulum in Latin) to the place of execution, but not necessarily the whole cross
[citation needed] Crucifixion was typically carried out by specialized teams, consisting of a commanding centurion and four soldiers
[citation needed] When it was done in an established place of execution, the vertical beam (stipes) could even be permanently embedded in the ground
[citation needed] It’s claimed by certain religious texts that the victims of crucifixion were stripped naked prior to being put on the cross—all the New Testament gospels describe soldiers gambling for the robes of Jesus
The ‘nails’ were tapered iron spikes approximately 5 to 7 inches (13 to 18 cm) long, with a square shaft 3⁄8 inch (10 mm) across
In some cases, the nails were gathered afterward and used as healing amulets
[citation needed]
Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, abolished crucifixion in the Roman Empire in 337 out of veneration for Jesus Christ, its most famous victim
The Qur’an mentions crucifixion several times
In Surah 7:124, Fir’awn (i
the Pharaoh of Exodus) says that he will crucify his chief wizards
[83] Also, Surah 12:41 mentions Prophet Yusuf (Joseph) prophesying that the king (the current ruler of the land he was stranded in) would crucify one of his prisoners
In Surah 5:33, The Qur’an mentions crucifixion as a form of punishment
There are four different punishments for the different severities of crime
Crucifixion is the punishment for the robber who kills his victim after robbing him
Crucifixion was in use by the Umayyads
Crucifixion was introduced into Japan during the Sengoku period (1467–1573), after a 350-year period with no capital punishment
[89] It is believed to have been suggested to the Japanese by the introduction of Christianity into the region,[89] although similar types of punishment had been used as early as the Kamakura period
Known in Japanese as haritsuke (磔?), crucifixion was used in Japan before and during the Tokugawa Shogunate
Several related crucifixion techniques were used
Petra Schmidt, in “Capital Punishment in Japan”, writes:[90]
Execution by crucifixion included, first of all, hikimawashi (i
e, being paraded about town on horseback); then the unfortunate was tied to a cross made from one vertical and two horizontal poles
The cross was raised, the convict speared several times from two sides, and eventually killed with a final thrust through the throat
The corpse was left on the cross for three days
If one condemned to crucifixion died in prison, his body was pickled and the punishment executed on the dead body
Under Toyotomi Hideyoshi, one of the great 16th-century unifiers, crucifixion upside down (i
e, sakasaharitsuke) was frequently used
Water crucifixion (mizuharitsuke) awaited mostly Christians: a cross was raised at low tide; when the high tide came, the convict was submerged under water up to the head, prolonging death for many days
In 1597 twenty-six Christians were nailed to crosses at Nagasaki, Japan
Among those executed were Saints Paulo Miki, Philip of Jesus and Pedro Bautista, a Spanish Franciscan who had worked about ten years in the Philippines
The executions marked the beginning of a long history of persecution of Christianity in Japan, which continued until its decriminalization in 1871
Crucifixion was used as a punishment for prisoners of war during World War II
Ringer Edwards, an Australian prisoner of war, was crucified for killing cattle, along with two others
He survived 63 hours before being let down
In Burma, crucifixion was a central element in several execution rituals
Felix Carey, a missionary in Burma from 1806–12[91] wrote the following:[92]
Four or five persons, after being nailed through their hands and feet to a scaffold, had first their tongues cut out, then their mouths slit open from ear to ear, then their ears cut off, and finally their bellies ripped open
Six people were crucified in the following manner: their hands and feet nailed to a scaffold; then their eyes were extracted with a blunt hook; and in this condition they were left to expire; two died in the course of four days ; the rest were liberated, but died of mortification on the sixth or seventh day
Four persons were crucified, viz
not nailed but tied with their hands and feet stretched out at full length, in an erect posture
In this posture they were to remain till death; every thing they wished to eat was ordered them with a view to prolong their lives and misery
In cases like this, the legs and feet of the criminals begin to swell and mortify at the expiration of three or four days; some are said to live in this state for a fortnight, and expire at last from fatigue and mortification
Those which I saw, were liberated at the end of three or four days
During World War I, there were persistent rumors that German soldiers had crucified a Canadian soldier on a tree or barn door with bayonets or combat knives
The event was initially reported in 1915 by Private George Barrie of the 1st Canadian Division
Two investigations, one a post-war official investigation, and the other an independent investigation by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, concluded that there was no evidence to support the story
[93] However, British documentary maker Iain Overton in 2001 published an article claiming that the story was true, identifying the soldier as Harry Band
[93][94] Overton’s article was the basis for a 2002 episode of the Channel 4 documentary show Secret History
It has been reported that crucifixion was used in several cases against the German civil population of East Prussia when it was occupied by Soviet forces at the end of the Second World War
Crucifixion is still used as a rare method of execution in some countries
The punishment of crucifixion (șalb) imposed in Islamic law is variously interpreted as exposure of the body after execution, crucifixion followed by stabbing in the chest, or crucifixion for three days, survivors of which are allowed to live
The human rights group Karen Women Organization documented a case of Tatmadaw forces crucifying several Karen villagers in 2000 in the Dooplaya District in Burma’s Kayin State
On 5 February 2015 The United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) reported that the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has committed “several cases of mass executions of boys, as well as reports of beheadings, crucifixions of children and burying children alive
Theoretically, crucifixion is still one of the Hadd punishments in Iran
[101][102] Although it is not actually applied and there is no example of its use
[citation needed] If a crucified person were to survive three days of crucifixion, that person would be allowed to live
[103] Execution by hanging is described as follows: “In execution by hanging, the prisoner will be hung on a hanging truss which should look like a cross, while his (her) back is toward the cross, and (s)he faces the direction of Mecca [in Saudi Arabia], and his (her) legs are vertical and distant from the ground
Several people have been executed by crucifixion in Saudi Arabia in the 2000s, although on occasion they were first beheaded and then crucified
Most recently, in March 2013, a robber was set to be executed by being crucified for three days
[105] However, the method was changed
Ali Mohammed Baqir al-Nimr was arrested in 2012 when he was 17 years old for taking part in an anti-government protests in Saudi Arabia during the Arab Spring
[107] In May 2014, Ali al-Nimr was sentenced to be publicly beheaded and crucified
Sudan’s penal code, based upon the government’s interpretation of shari’a,[109][110][111] includes execution followed by crucifixion as a penalty
When, in 2002, 88 people were sentenced to death for crimes relating to murder, armed robbery, and participating in ethnic clashes, Amnesty International wrote that they could be executed by either hanging or crucifixion
On 30 April 2014 Islamic extremists carried out a total of seven public executions in Raqqa, northern Syria
[113] The pictures, originally posted to Twitter by a student at Oxford University, were retweeted by a Twitter account owned by a known member of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) causing major media outlets to incorrectly attribute the crucifixions to the militant group
[114] In most of these cases of “crucifixion” the victims are shot first then their bodies are displayed[115] but there have also been reports of “crucifixion” preceding shootings or decapitations[116] as well as a case where a man was said to have been “crucified alive for eight hours” with no indication of whether he died
On January 22nd, 2014, an anti-government activist and member of AutoMaidan was kidnapped by unknown parties and tortured for a week
His captors kept him in the dark, beat him, cut off a piece of his ear, and nailed him to a cross
His captors ultimately left him in a forest outside Kiev after forcing him to confess to being an American spy and accepting money from the US Embassy in Ukraine to organize protests against then-President Viktor Yanukovych
In 2015, a video surfaced depicting members of the Azov Battalion, an official regiment of the Ukrainian Armed Forces, allegedly crucifying a separatist rebel of Novorossiya and burning him alive
Therein they declare, “all the separatists, traitors of Ukraine and militia fighters [sic] will be treated the same
” The Azov Battalion is associated with neo-Nazism and flaunts symbols associated with the SS such as the wolfsangel and black sun
They allegedly sent the video to the pro-Russian hacktivist organization CyberBerkut, which responded by threatening to take no Ukrainian Army soldiers or militia fighters as prisoners from then on
The authenticity of this video is unconfirmed
Crucifixion is a legal punishment in the United Arab Emirates
Sculpture Construction Crucifixion Homage to Mondrian by Barbara Hepworth, United Kingdom (2007)
Allegory of Poland (1914-1918), postcard by Sergey Solomko
The Holy Cross, article of the Novine (September 3, 1933)
Car-float at the feast of the Virgin of San Juan de los Lagos, Colonia Doctores, Mexico City (2011)
Anti-Semitic USA political cartoon, Sound Money magazine, April 15, 1896 issue
The Catholic Church frowns on self-crucifixion as a form of devotion: “Penitential practices leading to self-crucifixion with nails are not to be encouraged
“[123] Nevertheless, the practice is not unknown
In the Philippines, some Catholics are voluntarily, non-lethally crucified for a limited time on Good Friday to imitate the sufferings of Christ
Pre-sterilised nails are driven through the palm of the hand between the bones, while there is a footrest to which the feet are nailed
Rolando del Campo, a carpenter in Pampanga, vowed to be crucified every Good Friday for 15 years if God would carry his wife through a difficult childbirth,[124] while in San Pedro Cutud, Ruben Enaje has been crucified 27 times
[125] The Church in the Philippines has repeatedly voiced disapproval of crucifixions and self-flagellation, while the government has noted that it cannot deter devotees
The Department of Health insists that participants in the rites should have tetanus shots and that the nails used should be sterilized
In other cases, a crucifixion is only simulated within a passion play, as in the ceremonial re-enactment that has been performed yearly in the town of Iztapalapa, on the outskirts of Mexico City, since 1833,[127] and in the more famous Oberammergau Passion Play
Also, since at least the mid-19th century, a group of flagellants in New Mexico, called Hermanos de Luz (“Brothers of Light”), have annually conducted reenactments of Christ’s crucifixion during Holy Week, in which a penitent is tied—but not nailed—to a cross
[citation needed]


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