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Rochester (/ˈrɒtʃᵻstər/ or /ˈrɒˌtʃɛstər/) is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in the western portion of the U
state of New York, and the seat of Monroe County
The population of the city itself (210,565) was the third largest in the state — after New York City and Buffalo — at the time of the 2010 census
Rochester is at the center of a larger metropolitan area that encompasses and extends beyond Monroe County, and comprises Genesee County, Livingston County, Ontario County, Orleans County and Wayne County
This area, which is part of the Western New York region, had a population of 1,079,671 at the time of the 2010 Census
A Census estimate of July 1, 2012, raised that number to 1,082,284
Rochester was one of America’s first boomtowns, and rose to prominence initially as the site of many flour mills along the Genesee River, and then as a major hub of manufacturing
[citation needed] Several of the region’s universities (notably the University of Rochester and Rochester Institute of Technology) have renowned research programs
In addition, Rochester is the site of many important inventions and innovations in consumer products
The Rochester area has been the birthplace to such corporations as Kodak, Bausch & Lomb, and Xerox that conduct extensive research and manufacturing in the fields of industrial and consumer products
Until 2010, the Rochester metropolitan area was the second largest regional economy in New York State according to the U
Internal Revenue Service, after the New York City metropolitan area
[2] Rochester’s GMP has since ranked just below that of Buffalo, New York, while still exceeding it in per-capita income
The 25th edition of the Places Rated Almanac rated Rochester as the “most livable city” in 2007, among three hundred seventy nine U
metropolitan areas
[4] In 2010 Forbes rated Rochester as the third best place to raise a family
[5] In 2012 Kiplinger rated Rochester as the fifth best city for families, citing low cost of living, top public schools, and a low jobless rate
The Seneca tribe of Native Americans lived in the area in and around Rochester until they gave up their claim to most of this land in the Treaty of Big Tree in 1797
[7] Settlement before the Seneca tribe is unknown
Development of modern Rochester followed the American Revolution, and forced cession of their territory by the Iroquois after the defeat of Great Britain
Allied with the British, four major Iroquois tribes were essentially forced from New York
As a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a large land grant on the Grand River in Canada
Rochester was founded shortly after the American Revolution by a wave of English-Puritan descended immigrants from New England who were looking for new agricultural land
They would be the dominant cultural group in Rochester for over a century
[8] On November 8, 1803, Col
Nathaniel Rochester (1752–1831), Maj
Charles Carroll, and Col
William Fitzhugh, Jr
(1761–1839), all of Hagerstown, Maryland, purchased a 100-acre (ca
40 ha) tract from the state in Western New York along the Genesee River
They chose the site because its three cataracts on the Genesee offered great potential for water power
Beginning in 1811, and with a population of 15, the three founders surveyed the land and laid out streets and tracts
In 1817, the Brown brothers and other landowners joined their lands with the Hundred Acre Tract to form the village of Rochesterville
By 1821, Rochesterville was the seat of Monroe County
In 1823, Rochesterville consisted of 1,012 acres (4 km2) and 2,500 residents, and the Village of Rochesterville became known as Rochester
Also in 1823, the Erie Canal aqueduct over the Genesee River was completed, and the Erie Canal east to the Hudson River was opened
(In the early 20th century, after the advent of railroads, the presence of the canal in the center city was an obstacle; it was re-routed south of Rochester
) By 1830, Rochester’s population was 9,200 and in 1834, it was re-chartered as a city
Rochester was first known as “the Young Lion of the West”, and then as the “Flour City”
By 1838, Rochester was the largest flour-producing city in the United States
Having doubled its population in only ten years, Rochester became America’s first “boomtown”
Rochester experienced one of the nation’s biggest revivalist movements, led by Charles Finney
By the mid-19th century, as the center of the wheat-processing industry moved west with population and agriculture, the city became home to an expanding nursery business, giving rise to the city’s second nickname, the “Flower City
” Large and small nurseries ringed the city, the most famous of which was started in 1840 by immigrants Georg Ellwanger from Germany and Patrick Barry from Ireland
In 1847, Frederick Douglass founded the abolitionist newspaper The North Star in Rochester
Douglass, a former slave and an antislavery speaker and writer, gained a circulation of over 4,000 readers in the United States, Europe and the Caribbean
The North Star served as a forum for abolitionist views
The Douglass home burnt down in 1872, but a marker for it can be found in Highland Park off South Avenue
[10] The city was also home to Susan B
Anthony, an abolitionist who became active in the women’s rights movement
At the end of the 19th century, anarchist Emma Goldman lived and worked in Rochester for several years, where she championed the cause of labor in Rochester sweatshops
Rochester was also home to significant unrest in labor, race, and antiwar protests
After the Civil War, Rochester had an expansion of new industries in the late 19th century, founded by migrants to the city, such as inventor and entrepreneur George Eastman, who founded Eastman Kodak; and German immigrants John Jacob Bausch and Henry Lomb, who combined technical and financial expertise to launch Bausch & Lomb in 1861
Not only did they create new industries and thousands of jobs, but Eastman became a major philanthropist, developing and endowing the University of Rochester, its Eastman School of Music and other local institutions
In the early 20th century, Rochester became a center of the garment industry, particularly men’s fashions
It was the base of enterprises such as Bond Clothing Stores, Fashion Park Clothes, Hickey Freeman, and Stein-Bloch & Co
The carriage maker James Cunningham and Sons founded a pioneer automobile company – Cunningham
The population reached 62,386 in 1870, 162,608 in 1900 and 295,750 in 1920
By 1950, the population had reached a high of 332,488
In 1950, the Census Bureau reported Rochester’s population as 97
6% white and 2
[12] With industrial restructuring in the later 20th century, and the decline of industry and jobs in the area, by 2010, the population had declined to 210,565 in the city, although the metropolitan area was considerably larger
Rochester is at 43°9′56″N 77°36′41″W / 43
61139°W / 43
165496, −77
[13] The city is about 65 miles (100 km) east-northeast of Buffalo and about 75 miles (120 km) west of Syracuse; it sits on Lake Ontario’s southern shore
The Genesee River bisects the city
New York City is about 250 miles (400 km) to the southeast
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37
1 square miles (96 km2), of which 35
8 square miles (93 km2) of it is land and 1
3 square miles (3
4 km2) of it (3
42%) is water
Rochester’s geography was formed by the ice sheets during the Pleistocene epoch
The retreating ice sheets reached a standstill at what is now the southern border of the city, melting at the same rate as they were advancing, depositing sediment along the southern edge of the ice mass
This created a line of hills, including (from west to east) Mt
Hope, the hills of Highland Park, Pinnacle Hill, and Cobb’s Hill
Because the sediment of these hills was deposited into a proglacial lake, they are stratified and classified as a “kame delta”
A brief retreat and readvance of the ice sheet onto the delta deposited unstratified material there, creating a rare hybrid structure called a “kame moraine”
The ice sheets also created Lake Ontario (one of the five fresh-water Great Lakes), the Genesee River with its waterfalls and gorges, Irondequoit Bay, Sodus Bay, Braddock Bay, Mendon Ponds, numerous local streams and ponds, the Ridge, and the nearby Finger Lakes
According to the City of Rochester, the city has 537 miles (864 km) of public streets, 585 miles (941 km) of water mains, 44 vehicular and eight pedestrian bridges, 11 public libraries, two police stations (one for the east side, one for the west), and 15 firehouses
The principal source of water is Hemlock Lake, which, with its watershed, is owned by the state of New York
Other water sources include Canadice Lake and Lake Ontario
The 30-year annual average snowfall is just above 100 in (2
[14] The monthly daily average ranges from 24
7 °F (−4
1 °C) in January to 70
8 °F (21
6 °C) in July
The high amount of snow that Rochester receives can be accounted for by the city’s proximity to Lake Ontario (see lake effect)
Rochester lies in the humid continental climate zone (Köppen Dfb)[15] and has four distinct seasons, with cold and snowy winters; temperatures drop to 0 °F (−18 °C) on 4
2 nights annually
Autumn features brilliant foliage colors, and summer sees generally comfortable temperatures that usually stay in the range of 80 to 85 °F (27 to 29 °C) accompanied by moderate to high humidity; there are only 6
9 days annually of highs more than 90 °F (32 °C)
Precipitation is plentiful year round
According to the 2010 census, the city’s population was 43
7% White or White American, 41
7% Black, 0
5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3
1% Asian, 0
0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 6
6% from some other race and 4
4% from two or more races
4% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, mostly made up of Puerto Ricans
[25] Non-Hispanic Whites were 37
6% of the population in 2010,[23] compared to 80
Over the course of the past 50 years Rochester has become a major center for immigration, particularly for arrivals from Eastern Europe and Southeastern Europe, Subsaharan Africa and the Caribbean
Rochester has the highest percentage of Puerto Ricans of any major city in the United States,[22] one of the four largest Turkish American communities,[26] one of the largest Jamaican American communities in any major U
S city[27] and a large concentration of Polish Americans along with nearby Buffalo, NY
In 1997, Rochester had the largest per capita deaf population in the United States
[28] This is attributed to the fact that Rochester is home to the National Technical Institute for the Deaf
There were 88,999 households of which 30
0% had children under 18 living with them, 25
1% were married couples living together, 23
3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 47
0% were non-families
1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9
2% had someone living alone 65 or older
The average household size was 2
36 and the average family size was 3
The city population was 28
1% under 18, 11
6% from 18 to 24, 32
2% from 25 to 44, 18
1% from 45 to 64, and 10
0% who were 65 or older
The median age was 31
For every 100 females there were 91
For every 100 females 18 and over, there were 87
The median income for a city household was $27,123, and the median family income was $31,257
Males had a median income of $30,521, versus $25,139 for females
The per capita income for the city was $15,588
4% of families and 25
9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37
5% of those under age 18 and 15
4% of those age 65 or over
In 2012 Rochester had 2,061 reported violent crimes per 100,000 residents, compared to a national rate of 553
[29] That same year, Rochester had 827 personal crime incidents and 11,054 property crime incidents per 100,000 residents
With 100 being the national average, Rochester scores a personal crime rate of 170 and a property crime rate of 134
In 2012, Rochester reported 36 murders (17
1 per 100,000 people), 95 sexual assaults, 816 robberies, 1,104 aggravated assault, 2,978 burglaries, 7,694 larceny thefts, 111 forcible rape, 622 auto thefts and 152 arson
Rochester is home to a number of Fortune 1000 and international businesses, including Eastman Kodak, as well as several national and regional companies, such as Carestream Health
Xerox was founded in Rochester in 1906 as The Haloid Company,[33] and retains a significant presence in Rochester, although its headquarters are now located in Norwalk, Connecticut
Bausch & Lomb moved to Bridgewater, New Jersey in 2014
[34] The Gannett newspaper company and Western Union were founded in Rochester by Frank Gannett and Hiram Sibley respectively but have since moved to other cities
The median single-family house price was $135,000 in the second quarter of 2015 in greater Rochester, an increase of 5
4% from a year earlier, according to the National Association of Realtors
Tech Valley, the technologically recognized area of eastern New York State, has spawned a western offshoot into the Rochester and Finger Lakes areas of New York State
Since the 2000s, as the more established companies in Rochester downsized, the economy of Rochester and Monroe County has been redirected toward high technology, with new, smaller companies providing the seed capital necessary for business foundation
The Rochester area is important in the field of photographic processing and imaging as well as incubating an increasingly diverse high technology sphere encompassing STEM fields, in part the result of private startup enterprises collaborating with major academic institutions, including the University of Rochester and Cornell University
[36] Given the high prevalence of imaging and optical science among the industry and the universities, Rochester is known as the world capital of imaging
The Institute of Optics of the University of Rochester and the Rochester Institute of Technology in nearby Henrietta both have imaging programs
[37] In 2006, the University of Rochester became the largest employer in the Rochester area, surpassing the Eastman Kodak Company
One food product that Rochester calls its own is the “white hot”, a variant of the hot dog or smoked bratwurst made by the local Zweigle’s company and other companies
Another local specialty is the “Garbage Plate,” a trademark of Nick Tahou Hots that traditionally includes baked beans, home fries, and 2 hot dogs topped with mustard, onions, and their famous meat hot sauce
Many area restaurants feature copies or variations with the word “plate” commonly used as a general term
Rochester was home to French’s Mustard, whose address was 1 Mustard Street
Genesee Brewing Company, maker of the Genesee beers, Honey Brown, Dundee Ales & Lagers and Labatt Blue Lime also calls Rochester home
The Ragú brand of pasta sauce used to be produced in Rochester
Some of the original facility still exists and produces products for other labels (including Newman’s Own) as Private Label Foods
Other local franchises include: Bill Gray’s (a hamburger/hot dog joint that lays claim to having “The World’s Greatest Cheeseburger”), DiBella’s, Tom Wahl’s, American Specialty Manufacturing producers of Boss Sauce, Pontillo’s Pizzeria and Abbott’s Frozen Custard
Dinosaur Bar-B-Que, which originated in Syracuse, also operates its second franchise downtown in the former Lehigh Valley Railroad station on the Genesee River
As of February 2008, the top ten tallest buildings in the city are:[39]
Numerous companies have corporate headquarters in Rochester
Locally founded corporations that have since moved their headquarters to other states include Bausch & Lomb, Champion, French’s, Gannett, Schlegel, Western Union, and Xerox
Humor website eBaum’s World was also started in Rochester
Companies that moved their headquarters from the city of Rochester to the suburbs include Wegmans (Gates, NY) and Paychex (Penfield, NY)
Rochester is governed by a “mayor” serving as chief executive of city government and a city council consisting of 4 district members and 5 at-large members
[43] Mayor Lovely Warren was first elected mayor in November 2013 defeating incumbent Thomas Richards in both a Democratic primary and General Election
Warren took office in January, 2014 becoming both the youngest and first female mayor in Rochester history
The city’s police department is the Rochester Police Department, headed by Chief of Police Michael L
Enforcement of property code violations in Rochester had been handled by the Neighborhood Empowerment Team, or NET
Rather than utilizing a centralized code-enforcement office, 10 sectors in Rochester were assigned a total of six NET offices by the city government
However, there had been complaints about the lack of consistency in the manner and severity of enforcement between NET offices
On July 16, 2008, the city announced that two of the NET offices would be closed and another relocated, due to what it had found to be the high cost and low value of operating the decentralized network
[44] Following the restructuring, the remaining offices were renamed Neighborhood Service Centers, or NSCs
There is now one office per city quadrant which resolve quality of life issues, work with neighborhood groups, and pave the way for appropriate housing and economic development
[45] The majority of code enforcement processes were consolidated into the Bureau of Inspection and Compliance within the Department of Neighborhood and Business Development located centrally in City Hall
The city is represented by Democrat Louise M
Slaughter of Fairport, Monroe County in Congress
She was first elected in 1987
New York’s 25th Congressional District covers the city
After redistricting based on the 2010 United States Census, the city was split between three state senate districts:
After redistricting based on the 2010 United States Census, Monroe County was split between three state assembly districts:
Rochester is part of
Rochester is represented districts 3, 4, 14, and 20–29 in the Monroe County legislature
The city of Rochester is protected by approximately 500 professional firefighters in the Rochester Fire Department (RFD)
The RFD is the third largest fire department in the state of New York
It operates from 14 fire stations, located throughout the city, under the command of 2 Battalion Chiefs and a Deputy Chief per shift
The RFD operates 13 engines, 6 trucks, 1 heavy rescue, 2 hazardous material units, 1 salvage unit (Rochester Protectives), as well as many other special and support units
There are 87 line division members working each shift, including chief officers & fire investigation (not including staff divisions such as Fire Safety, the Training Academy and Supply Depot)
The RFD responds to around 40,000 emergency calls annually
Approximately 90% of RFD personnel are certified NY State EMTs and approximately 50% of the calls each year are for EMS
The RFD also operates its own apparatus repair division located at the Public Safety Training Facility
The current Chief of Department is John P
Suburbs of the city include: Brighton, Brockport, Chili, Churchville, East Rochester, Fairport, Gates, Greece, Hamlin, Henrietta, Hilton, Honeoye Falls, Irondequoit, Mendon, Ogden, Parma, Penfield, Pittsford, Riga, Rush, Scottsville, Spencerport, Webster, Victor and Wheatland
Rochester has a number of neighborhoods, including the 19th Ward, 14621 Community, Beechwood, Browncroft, Cascade District, Cobbs Hill, Charlotte, Corn Hill, Dewey, Dutchtown, Edgerton, Ellwanger-Barry, German Village, Grove Place, High Falls District, Highland Park, Dutchtown, Maplewood (10th Ward), Marketview Heights, Mt
Read, North Winton Village,Neighborhood of the Arts (NOTA), Otis-Lyell, Park Avenue, Plymouth-Exchange, Southwest, East End, South Wedge, Swillburg, Susan B
Anthony, University-Atlantic, Upper Monroe, and more are all recognized communities with various neighborhood associations
There are also living spaces in Downtown Rochester
The Browncroft neighborhood is built on the former nursery grounds of the Brown Brothers nursery
The business district situated on Winton Rd has a mix of restaurants and shops
The neighborhood borders the nearby Tryon and Ellison Parks
The Browncroft Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004
Extending across much of the north-central cityscape of Rochester, now including parts of the old Hudson Avenue and North Clinton neighborhoods, is the 14621 community
Today this neighborhood is predominantly Black and Hispanic, this community suffered being the center of the 1964 riots
[57] The riots did produce some benefits in the long run: the north-central area has been the site of ongoing urban renewal projects since the late 1960s, and, as noted by JULY ’64 filmmakers Carvin Eison and Chris Christopher, inspired the development of such important Black organizations such as The Urban League of Rochester as well as Rochester’s first anti-poverty organization (Action for a Better Community), and black community activist organization Freedom, Integration, God, Honor, Today (F
) founded by Rev
Franklin Florence and Deleon McEwen, the latter was its first president
The establishment of this program came through the assistance of Saul Alinsky
The neighborhood is still considered the most dangerous part of Rochester and is blighted by crime, drugs and gang activity
Once an Italian-American neighborhood, there have recently been efforts to improve the quality of life in this neighborhood
It is known largely for its crime, especially instances of prostitution and drug sales
[citation needed]
The 19th Ward is a southwest neighborhood bordered by Genesee Street, West Avenue, the Erie Canal, and is across the river from the University of Rochester
[59] Now known by its slogan “Urban by Choice,” in the early 19th century the area was known as Castle Town, after Castle Inn, a tavern run by Colonel Isaac Castle
By the early 1820s however, the area became overshadowed by developments in the north that would later become downtown Rochester
Due to a tumultuous bend in the Genesee river, the area was home to skilled boatsmen that assisted boats traveling north to Rochester and the area was consequently known during this time as “The Rapids”
In the 1890s, as Rochester expanded, the area became a prosperous residential area that thrived as the city grew
By 1930 it was a booming residential area for doctors, lawyers, and skilled workers; it includes the still prestigious Sibley Tract development
Homes in the originally upper-class neighborhood typically have gumwood trim, leaded glass, fireplaces, hardwood floors, and open porches
In the 1960s, property values declined as the population of Rochester did, the area experienced white flight accelerated by school busing, blockbusting, and race riots downtown, and crime increased, with violence, drug use, and neglected property further diminishing property values
To respond to these issues, the 19th Ward has had an active community association since 1965, and is now known for its ethnic, class, and cultural diversity
[vague] The current “Brooks Landing” development along the Genesee River at the former “rapids” is successfully bringing new economic development to the community including an 88-room hotel, 20,000-square-foot (1,900 m2) office building, 11,000 square feet (1,000 m2) of new retail, two restaurants, and Boulder Coffee shop
[61] Residential development is also increasing with completion of a 170-bed University of Rochester student housing tower at Brooks Landing in 2014, and 29 new market-rate homes nearby
Located in the 19th Ward are the Arvine Heights Historic District, Chili–West Historic District, Inglewood and Thurston Historic District, and Sibley–Elmdorf Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places
Charlotte (shar-LOT) is a lake front community in Rochester bordering Lake Ontario
It is home to Ontario Beach Park, commonly known as Charlotte Beach, which is a popular summer destination for Rochesterians
A new terminal was built in 2004 for the Rochester-to-Toronto ferry service and was later sold after the ferry ceased operations in 2005
The Port of Rochester terminal still exists and has since been revamped
It now houses the restaurant Cheeburger Cheeburger, the restaurant California Rollin’, a coffee shop named The Nutty Bavarian
The Corn Hill neighborhood near downtown is one of the nation’s best preserved Victorian neighborhoods and a center for art
It is also home to Corn Hill Landing, a shopping and housing strip located on the Genesee River
The annual Corn Hill Art Festival, a two-day event held the weekend after the 4th of July, is one of the city’s most popular gatherings for the display of art
Corn Hill is one of Rochester’s smaller neighborhoods
The neighborhood name came about because (allegedly) in the early settlement days, those traveling the fast-flowing Genesee River could see a large sized rolling hill covered with corn which had been planted by the immigrating Scots and English
By the late 1800s and well into the 1920s, Cornhill was home to some of the wealthiest families
Situated on the southern edge of downtown, the neighborhood allowed for a short carriage ride or walk to the banks and businesses of New York’s third largest city
Located less than one and one-half miles from downtown, Upper Monroe encompasses 17 streets with 1400 households and approximately 3300 residents
Cobbs Hill Park, with its beautiful reservoir, tennis courts and athletic fields, forms the southeastern boundary of this neighborhood
Highland Park, world-renowned for its annual Lilac Festival, also is within walking distance
[65] The Upper Monroe Neighborhood Association (UMNA) is a not-for-profit advocacy group representing the residents and property owners of the Upper Monroe neighborhood
Its goals are to ascertain the needs and concerns of the neighborhood and take positive action to address those needs and concerns
[66] The neighborhood is also home to a number of small, local businesses including: Hardpact, Huey’s Hair Company, Monty’s Krown, Jeremiah’s Tavern, and Park Ave
The East End is a residential neighborhood in Downtown Rochester but also the main nightlife district
The Eastman Theatre, the Rochester Philharmonic and the Eastman School of Music are in the East End, along with the Little Theatre, an independent film theatre and many clubs, bars and high-end restaurants
Maplewood is a northwest neighborhood located south of Eastman Business Park and between the Genesee River and Dewey Avenue
Much of the area’s charm comes from the use of parkways as well as parks and greenspace bordering the river
These features are the result of plans designed by Frederick Law Olmsted
The Maplewood Rose Garden is the second largest Rose Test Garden in the United States
The Maplewood Historic District was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1997
The North Winton Neighborhood is made up of spacious and quiet residential streets, small essential businesses and professional services and an 82-acre wilderness
Its neighborhood boundaries extend north to Colebourne Road/Merchants Road, south to Blossom Road, east to North Winton Road and west to Culver Road
There are two neighborhood associations within North Winton Village
The North Winton Village Neighborhood Association, joins businesses and residents together
Its major goals include “neighborhood preservation, beautification, pride in home ownership and patronization of neighborhood businesses
” Its motto: “Live, Shop and Beautify North Winton Village
” In 2011, residents in an area bounded by Culver Road, East Main Street, Cedarwood Terrace and Jersey Street joined together to create The North East Main Neighbors United (NEMNU)
Today, NEMNU’s mission is to maintain, improve, and enhance the quality of life in the neighborhood by addressing safety issues, providing social activities, communicating with residents and local government, promoting beautification projects, linking needs with resource opportunities, and developing cooperative efforts with businesses and neighborhood groups
Lining the streets of Park Avenue are cafes, shops, pubs and restaurants
In a broader view, the total area surrounding University Avenue—known as the Neighborhood of the Arts—is one of the most culture and art-rich sections of the city
Located here are the Village Gate, Memorial Art Gallery, School of The Arts, Rochester Museum and Science Center, Rochester Public Market, ARTWalk, George Eastman House, and high-end residential streets such as Granger Place, East Boulevard, Douglas Road, Westminster Road, and Berkeley Street
Also known by the acronym PLEX, the Plymouth-Exchange neighborhood provides affordable housing for lower income families
Also home to many University of Rochester students, both grad and undergrad, it has a richly knit community and an active neighborhood association
The South Wedge neighborhood dates back to 1827, prior to the incorporation of Rochester as a city
[68] The area is bordered by Byron Street in the north, South Clinton Avenue and Interstate 490 on its east, Highland Park on its south, and The Genesee River on the west
Construction of the Erie Canal (the old canal bed which went by the neighborhood is now used by Interstate 490) brought workers to the area, who set up camps for the months that it took to complete this section of the canal
[69] This racially integrated[citation needed] neighborhood is one of the neighborhoods in Rochester currently undergoing the process of gentrification, partially due to a recent increase in homeownership in the area
[70][71] A lot of young people live in this area
[citation needed] The Linden-South Historic District in South Wedge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2009
This neighborhood is a Preservation District on the National Register of Historic Places, known as the Madison Square-West Main Street Historic District
[72] It encompasses a three-and-one-half block area within walking distance from downtown Rochester, and comprises residential, commercial and industrial buildings
The center of the residential area is Susan B
Anthony Square, a 0
84-acre (3,400 m2) park shown on city maps from 1839, which was designed by the famous Olmstead Brothers
Also within the neighborhood is the Susan B
Anthony House, which was the suffragist’s residence for the last decades of her life, now a museum, as well as the Cunningham Carriage factory built in 1848 on Canal Street
James Cunningham Son & Co
sold more carriages in the United States in the 1880s than all other manufacturers combined
The Canal Street property, which still stands, remained Cunningham’s headquarters for more than 100 years
This wedge-shaped piece of the city is bordered by S
Clinton Avenue on the west, Field St on the south, and Interstate 490 on the east
[73] The neighborhood received its moniker when a 19th-century Rochester pig farmer utilized the area to collect swill for his swine
The area has one of the highest rates of homeownership in the city
[citation needed]
The local elementary school is #35, Field Street, which often sponsors a community garden in its courtyard on Pinnacle Street
Running east from Union Street just north of Main Street, Marketview Heights is best known as the location of the Public Market, which offers a variety of groceries and other goods from marketeers from farms and shops from surrounding areas, primarily on the weekends
Homestead Heights is located in northeast Rochester
It is bordered on the west by Goodman Street, on the north by Clifford Avenue, on the south by Bay Street, and on the east by Culver Road, which is also the border between the city and the town of Irondequoit
The neighborhood is a mix of residential and commercial
Real estate values are higher on the eastern end of the neighborhood near the Irondequoit border
The neighborhood is approximately 2–21⁄4 miles west of the Irondequoit Bay
The City of Rochester is served by the Rochester City School District which encompasses all public primary and secondary education
The district is governed by a popularly elected seven-member Board of Education
There are also parochial and private primary and secondary schools located within the city
Rochester City Schools consistently post below-average results when compared to the rest of New York State, although on-time graduation rates have improved significantly during the past three years
However, the high school graduation rate for African American males is lower in Rochester than in any city in the United States (9%)
[74] Charter schools in the city include Rochester Academy Charter School
Only two institutions of higher learning, the University of Rochester and Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School, operate primarily within the Rochester city limits
Additionally, Monroe Community College and SUNY Brockport operate campuses in downtown Rochester
These are the Damon City Campus[75] and SUNY MetroCenter,[76] respectively
Rochester Institute of Technology operates a student art gallery on College Avenue as well as a Center for Urban Entrepreneurship on Franklin Street
[77] Ithaca College’s Department of Physical Therapy leases part of the Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School facility for teaching and research
[78] The Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations maintains an office on Highland Avenue as well
There are four institutions that began operations in the city, but subsequently moved to Rochester’s inner-ring suburbs:
Rochester’s colleges are all part of the Rochester Area Colleges consortium
Rochester was host of the Barleywood Female University, a short-lived women’s college from 1852 to 1853
The Lutheran seminary that became Wagner College was established in the city in 1883 and remained for some 35 years before moving to Staten Island
The University of Rochester (U of R), was ranked as the 32nd-best university in the nation by U
News & World Report for 2014[84] and was deemed “one of the new Ivies” by Newsweek
[85] The nursing school has received many awards and honors[86] and the Simon School of Business is also ranked in the top 30 in many categories
The university is also home to the Eastman School of Music, which was ranked the number one music school in America
It was founded and endowed by George Eastman in his years as a philanthropist
[88] He also contributed greatly to the University of Rochester from wealth based on the success of Eastman Kodak
The city of Rochester is home to numerous cultural institutions
These include the Garth Fagan Dance, the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra, George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film, Memorial Art Gallery, Rochester Contemporary Art Center, Rochester Museum & Science Center, the Rochester Broadway Theater League, Strong National Museum of Play, the Strasenburgh Planetarium, Hochstein School of Music & Dance, the Auditorium Theater, and numerous arts organizations
Geva Theatre Center is the city’s largest professional theater
The East End Theater is located on East Main Street in the theater district
The Rochester Association of Performing Arts is a non-profit organization that provides educational theater classes to the community
Rochester’s East End district, located downtown, is well known as the center of the city’s nightlife
It is the stopping point for East Avenue, which along with the surrounding streets is crowded with nightclubs, lounges, coffee shops, bars, and high-end restaurants
The Eastman School of Music, one of the top musical institutes in the nation, and its auditorium are also located within the neighborhood
The Eastman Theatre now plays host to the Rochester Philharmonic Orchestra and other musical/drama events
There are other, smaller enclaves of after-hours activity scattered across the city
Southeast is the heart of Rochester’s thriving arts scene, particularly in and around the Park Avenue neighborhood (which is known for its many coffee shops, cafes, bistros and boutique shops)
Nearby on University Avenue can be found several plazas, like the Village Gate, which give space to trendy bars, restaurants and art galleries that stay open late into the night
Monroe Avenue, several streets over, is packed with pubs, small restaurants, smoke shops, theaters and several clubs as well as cigar bars and hookah lounges
All of these neighborhoods are home to many artists, musicians, students and Rochester’s large LGBT community
The South Wedge district, located directly below downtown, has seen significant gentrification in recent years and now is the site of many trendy cafes and bars that serve the student community attending the University of Rochester several blocks away from the heart of the neighborhoods
The “Wedge” is quickly becoming one of the most vibrant areas within the city limits, its numerous nightspots keeping the streets busy with college students and young professionals (many of whom live there due to the abundance of affordable housing, thriving nightlife and proximity to many of the region’s major hospitals, parks and colleges)
Rochester’s parks include Highland, Cobb’s Hill, Durand Eastman, Genesee Valley, Maplewood, Edgerton, Seneca, and Ontario Beach; four of these were designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted
[89] The city’s Victorian-era Mt
Hope Cemetery includes the final resting places of Susan B
Anthony, Frederick Douglass, George B
Selden, and many others
Other scenic sites are Holy Sepulchre and neighboring Riverside Cemetery
Throughout its history, Rochester has acquired several nicknames; it has been known as “the World’s Image Center”,[90] “the Flour City”, “the Flower City”
As a legacy of its time as “The Flower City”, Rochester hosts a Lilac Festival for ten days every May, when nearly 400 varieties of lilacs bloom, and 100,000 visitors arrive
Rochester hosts a number of cultural festivals every year, including:
The Democrat and Chronicle is Rochester’s main daily newspaper
The Daily Record, a legal, real estate and business daily, has published Monday through Friday since 1908
Insider magazine (owned by the Democrat and Chronicle), City newspaper and the Freetime entertainment magazine are free, weekly publications
Rochester Business Journal is the weekly business paper of record
The Good Life Magazine is a free bi-monthly publication
There is also a grassroots, democratically run, Independent Media Center called Rochester Indymedia
Media addressing the needs of Rochester’s large African American population include About
time,[99] and Minority Reporter, which has an associated news journal for the area’s Latin American population, La Voz
Rochester is served by eight broadcast television stations:
Rochester is served by several AM and FM radio stations including:
Time Warner Cable provides Rochester with cable-fed internet service, digital and standard cable television, and Time Warner Cable News Rochester, a 24-hour local news channel
Rochester was served by the Rochester Post Express published by the Post Express Print Company from 1882 to 1923
[101] In 1923 the paper merged with the Rochester News Corporation’s Rochester Evening Journal[102] to become Rochester Evening Journal and The Post Express and served the area from 1923 through 1937
[103] Rochester’s evening paper for many years was the Times-Union, which merged operations with the Democrat and Chronicle in 1992, going defunct five years later
Rochester was named the top minor league sports market in the country by Street & Smith’s Sports Business Journal in July 2005, the number 10 “best golf city” in America by Golf Magazine in 2007,[105] and the fifth-best “sports town” in the country by Scarborough Research in September 2008
Rochester has several professional sports teams:[107]
The Rochester Red Wings baseball club, the AAA affiliate of the Minnesota Twins, are one of the oldest existing franchises in all of professional sports
[citation needed] They play in the International League and won at least one pennant or championship in each decade of the 20th Century
[citation needed] The Rochester Red Wings are one of only six active franchises in the history of North American professional sports have played in the same city and same league continuously and uninterrupted since the 19th century
[citation needed]
The Rochester Rhinos soccer club played for many years in the A-League, which was the second-highest level American soccer league
The Rhinos won the U
Open Cup against Major League Soccer competition in 1999
Rochester is the home of the Western New York Flash, 2011 Women’s Professional Soccer champions
The Rochester River Dogz FC soccer begin play in the NPSL (2016– )
The Rochester Americans ice hockey team, the AHL affiliate for the NHL Buffalo Sabres, are known as the “Amerks”
Lacrosse has seen some popularity in Rochester
The Rochester Knighthawks play in the National Lacrosse League
The Rochester Rattlers were a charter member of Major League Lacrosse; the franchise was transferred away after winning the championship in 2008, but were re-established in 2011
The Rochester Razorsharks, in the Premier Basketball League have multiple championships
The Rochester Raiders indoor football team plays in Rochester
The team originally won two championships before folding in 2010
The Raiders return for 2014
Rochester has fielded three major league sports teams in the past
From 1920 to 1925, Rochester was home to the Rochester Jeffersons, a charter member of the National Football League
From 1948 to 1957, the Rochester Royals played in the National Basketball Association, winning the NBA championship in 1951
In soccer, the Rochester Lancers played from 1970 to 1980 in the top-level North American Soccer League and became NASL champions in the 1970 season
Since 1877, 29 teams in eight professional sports have represented Rochester
[citation needed]
Rochester has a rich history in golf dating back to the 19th Century
Oak Hill Country Club, which is often included in America’s Top 100 Courses[citation needed] is in the suburb of Pittsford
Oak Hill has hosted the Ryder Cup, Men’s U
S Open, and PGA Championship
Locust Hill Country Club used to host the Wegman’s LPGA Championship every year in late June
Numerous golf magazines have praised Rochester for its rich passion for the game and its high level of competition
[citation needed]
Rochester is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in the U
which does not include at least one college or university participating at the NCAA Division I level in all sports
Almost all area college sports are played at the NCAA Division III level
The only exceptions are the RIT men’s and women’s ice hockey teams, which compete at the Division I level
RIT’s other sports, as well as the Institute as a whole, are classified as being part of Division III
The men’s team made it to the NCAA Frozen Four in 2010 and the women’s team won the Division III national championship in 2012, just before switching over to Division I
As of the 2014-2015 academic year, the only college in the Rochester area not officially classified at the Division III level is Roberts Wesleyan College, which completed its transition from membership in the National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA); Roberts Wesleyan was granted full membership in NCAA Division II beginning with the 2014-15 year
Rochester is home to two men’s rugby teams, the Rochester Aardvarks and the Rochester Colonials
Both have long histories, with the Aardvarks celebrating their 40th anniversary in 2006, and the Rochester Colonials celebrating 30 years in 2010
Both rugby clubs are among the few in the country to own their own pitch: Aardvark Park in Henrietta, New York, while the Colonials play their matches at Marianne Cope Parish in Henrietta, New York
The Aardvarks and the Colonials both have hosted local and statewide tournaments and the Rochester Colonials hosted the 2007 USA Rugby National Collegiate All-Star Championships, Rochester’s first national tournament, as well as the 2009 NYS Rugby Upstates Tournament and the 2009 New York State High School Rugby Championships
Both teams participate in the annual Can-Am Rugby Tournament in Saranac Lake, New York in early August
Rochester also has a Women’s Rugby club, the Rochester Renegades, who celebrated their 20th anniversary in 2008
The Renegades started the New York State Rugby Women’s Division
[citation needed][109]
The city has 13 full-time recreation centers, 19 swimming programs, 3 artificial ice rinks, 66 softball/baseball fields, 47 tennis courts, 5 football fields, 7 soccer fields, and 43 outdoor basketball courts
There is marine freight service at the Port of Rochester on Lake Ontario, which is connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Saint Lawrence Seaway
A short-lived, high-speed passenger/vehicle ferry Spirit of Ontario I built in Australia, nicknamed The Breeze or The Fast Ferry, linked Rochester to Toronto across Lake Ontario
Canadian American Transportation Systems (CATS) was the company in charge of the Fast Ferry operations
The Spirit of Ontario I had a delayed arrival on April 29, 2004 as a result of hitting a pier in New York City on April 5, 2004 and was finally officially christened on June 16, 2004 at the Port of Rochester
The Fast Ferry was bought by the City of Rochester in an attempt to save the project
The Fast Ferry operated between June 17, 2004, and December 12, 2005, and cost the city $42
The project was initially well received by inhabitants of Rochester
Considerable effort was spent by inhabitants of Rochester to build up the waterfront to embrace the idea as well as to capitalize on potential tourism which was estimated to be an additional 75,000 tourists per month
In the first three months of operation the fast ferry had carried about 140,000 people between Rochester and Toronto
A second Fast Ferry was proposed by CATS on August 27, 2004 which would have cost an additional $100 Million
Due to a number of problems concerning the ship’s engine (June 6, 2004 blown gasket and September 2004 to June 2005) requiring costly repairs, the lack of mutual building up of waterfronts in Toronto and the inability of the city to put pressure on the company responsible for the production of the Fast Ferry yielded in the failure of the project
It was sold to Förde Reederei Seetouristik, a German company, for $30 million
The mayor at the time was William A
Johnson, Jr
and was succeeded by Robert Duffy on January 1, 2006
Rochester is served by the Greater Rochester International Airport (GRIA)
Daily scheduled air service is provided by Air Canada, American, Delta, JetBlue, Southwest, and United
Many of these airlines do not operate mainline service to Rochester; rather, they contract regional airlines to operate flights on their own, smaller aircraft
In 2010, the GRIA was ranked the 14th-least expensive airport in the United States by Cheapflights
[110] This was considered a major achievement for the county and the airport authority; as recently as 2003, Rochester’s ticket prices were among the highest in the country, ranking as high as fourth in 1999
FedEx founder Fred Smith has stated in numerous articles that Xerox’s development of the copier, and its need to quickly get parts to customers, was one of the economic issues that led him to pioneer the overnight delivery business in 1971
[citation needed] Because Xerox manufactured its copiers in Rochester[citation needed], the city was one of the original 25 cities that FedEx served on its first night of operations on April 17, 1973
Prior to the Amtrak Station, Rochester had a smaller version of New York City’s “Grand Central Station
” It was among Claude Fayette Bragdon’s best works in Rochester, New York
Rochester used to be a major stop on train lines
It was served by the New York Central Railroad which served Chicago and Buffalo to the west and Albany and New York City to the east and southeast
The Buffalo, Rochester and Pittsburgh Railway (absorbed by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad) served Buffalo and Pittsburgh until 1955
A rail route to Salamanca in southern New York State afforded connections in Salamanca to southwestern and southeastern New York State
[114] The last long-distance train in a southern direction was the Northern Express/Southern Express that went to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania via Canandaigua, Elmira and Williamsport; service ended in 1971
Amtrak (passenger) and freight lines provide rail service to Rochester
Rochester has intercity and transcontinental bus service via Greyhound and Trailways
Local bus service in Rochester and its county suburbs is provided by the Rochester-Genesee Regional Transportation Authority (RGRTA) via its Regional Transit Service (RTS) subsidiary
RTS also provides suburban service outside the immediate Rochester area and runs smaller transportation systems in outlying counties, such as WATS (Wayne Area Transportation System)
From 1927 to 1957, Rochester had a light rail underground transit system called the Rochester Subway
It was the smallest city in the world to have one
Over the years there have been privately sponsored proposals put forth that encourage the region to support a new system, possibly using some of the old tunnels
One includes converting the Broad Street bridge tunnel—the former canal aqueduct—into an enhanced pedestrian corridor, which would also include a Rochester Transportation Museum, and a tram system
The former canal and subway tunnels have become a frequent source of debate
Several city homeless use the tunnels for shelter, and a few areas near tunnel entrances have gained the reputation as being dangerous
The city has considered multiple solutions for the space including recreating a canal way, putting the subway system back in or filling the tunnels entirely
The plan to fill the tunnels in completely has generated criticism as the cost of filling would not generate nor leverage economic development
Public support continues to grow for re-watering the original Erie Canal through downtown Rochester
[citation needed] In support of the re-watering efforts, the City released a master plan in 2009 calling for the creation of Rochester’s Historic Canal District
A subsequent environmental review document is set to be released in the near future, seeking additional public input
This district includes both private and public investment that builds upon the rich heritage of the district, educational opportunities, historic interpretation, architectural significant building and recreational amenities
The City is currently seeking public funds for implementing the first of three major phases of the Canal District
There are three exits off the New York State Thruway (Interstate 90) that serve Rochester
Rochester has an extensive system of limited-access highways (called ‘freeways’ and ‘expressways’) which connects all parts of the city and the Thruway
During the Thruway’s construction, a disagreement between the governor of New York and mayor of Rochester resulted in a bypass of downtown Rochester, leaving the city struggling for growth
[citation needed]
Rochester’s expressway system, conceived in the 1950s, was designed as two concentric circles with feeder expressways from the west, south and east
The system allows for quick travel within the metropolitan area and a lack of the traffic gridlock typically found in cities of comparable size; in part this is because the system was designed to accommodate an anticipated year-2000 metro population of 5 million,[citation needed] whereas the present-day population is just over one million
The Outer Loop circles just outside the city limits while the former Inner Loop once circled around the immediate downtown area within the city (the easternmost third was closed in 2015)
From the west are Lake Ontario State Parkway, NY-531 and I-490; Interstate 390 feeds from the south; and NY-104, NY-441, and I-490 approach from the east
In the early 1970s, the Genesee Expressway Task Force, City leaders, and NYSDOT studied the feasibility of connecting the outer and inner Loops with a new southern expressway
The proposed route extended north from the I-390 and I-590 interchange in Brighton, cutting through Rochester’s Swillburg neighborhood
In 1972, consultants Berger Lehman Associates recommended a new ‘Busway’, an expressway with dedicated bus lanes, similar to Bus Rapid Transit
[116] The expressway extension was never built
Three Interstate Highways run through the City of Rochester:
Interstate 390 (Genesee Expressway)
Interstate 490 (Western/Eastern Expressway)
Interstate 590
New York State Route Expressways:
New York State Route 104 (Irondequoit-Wayne County Expressway, West Ridge Road)
New York State Route 390
New York State Route 590
New York State Parkways:
Lake Ontario State Parkway
Rochester has twelve sister cities,[117] as designated by Sister Cities International
They are all dedicated by a branched concrete walkway over the Genesee River, dubbed the Sister Cities Bridge (known as the Frank and Janet Lamb Bridge since October 2006):[118]
Coordinates: 43°9′56″N 77°36′41″W / 43
61139°W / 43


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