Kindle Books Promotion Software Review

(/ˈæməzɒn/ or /ˈæməzən/), often referred to as simply Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington
It is the largest Internet-based retailer in the United States
[12] Amazon
com started as an online bookstore, later diversifying to sell DVDs, Blu-rays, CDs, video downloads/streaming, MP3 downloads/streaming, audiobook downloads/streaming, software, video games, electronics, apparel, furniture, food, toys and jewelry
The company also produces consumer electronics—notably, Amazon Kindle e-book readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV and Fire Phone—and is the world’s largest provider of cloud infrastructure services (IaaS)
[13] Amazon also sells certain low-end products like USB cables under its in-house brand AmazonBasics
Amazon has separate retail websites for United States, United Kingdom and Ireland, France, Canada, Germany, Italy, Spain, Netherlands, Australia, Brazil, Japan, China, India and Mexico
Amazon also offers international shipping to certain other countries for some of its products
[14] In 2011, it professed an intention to launch its websites in Poland[15] and Sweden
In 2015, Amazon surpassed Walmart as the most valuable retailer in the United States by market capitalization
The company was founded in 1994, spurred by what Bezos called his “regret minimization framework,” which described his efforts to fend off any regrets for not participating sooner in the Internet business boom during that time
[18] In 1994, Bezos left his employment as vice-president of D
Shaw & Co
, a Wall Street firm, and moved to Seattle
He began to work on a business plan for what would eventually become Amazon
Jeff Bezos incorporated the company as “Cadabra” on July 5, 1994
[11] Bezos changed the name to Amazon a year later after a lawyer misheard its original name as “cadaver”
[19] The company went online as Amazon
com in 1995
Bezos selected the name Amazon by looking through the dictionary, and settled on “Amazon” because it was a place that was “exotic and different” just as he planned for his store to be; the Amazon river, he noted was by far the “biggest” river in the world, and he planned to make his store the biggest in the world
[20] Bezos placed a premium on his head start in building a brand, telling a reporter, “There’s nothing about our model that can’t be copied over time
But you know, McDonald’s got copied
And it still built a huge, multibillion-dollar company
A lot of it comes down to the brand name
Brand names are more important online than they are in the physical world
“[21] Additionally, a name beginning with “A” was preferential due to the probability it would occur at the top of any list that was alphabetized
Since June 19, 2000, Amazon’s logotype has featured a curved arrow leading from A to Z, representing that the company carries every product from A to Z, with the arrow shaped like a smile
After reading a report about the future of the Internet that projected annual Web commerce growth at 2,300%, Bezos created a list of 20 products that could be marketed online
He narrowed the list to what he felt were the five most promising products which included: compact discs, computer hardware, computer software, videos, and books
Bezos finally decided that his new business would sell books online, due to the large world-wide demand for literature, the low price points for books, along with the huge number of titles available in print
[23] Amazon[24] was originally founded in Bezos’ garage in Bellevue, Washington
The company began as an online bookstore, an idea spurred off with discussion with John Ingram of Ingram Book (now called Ingram Content Group), along with Keyur Patel who still holds a stake in Amazon
[26] Amazon was able to access books at wholesale from Ingram
In the first two months of business, Amazon sold to all 50 states and over 45 countries
Within two months, Amazon’s sales were up to $20,000/week
[27] While the largest brick and mortar bookstores and mail order catalogs might offer 200,000 titles, an online bookstore could “carry” several times more, since it would have a practically unlimited virtual (not actual) warehouse: those of the actual product makers/suppliers
Amazon was incorporated in 1994, in the state of Washington
In July 1995, the company began service and sold its first book on Amazon
com: Douglas Hofstadter’s Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought
[28] In October 1995, the company announced itself to the public
[29] In 1996, it was reincorporated in Delaware
Amazon issued its initial public offering of stock on May 15, 1997, trading under the NASDAQ stock exchange symbol AMZN, at a price of US$18
00 per share ($1
50 after three stock splits in the late 1990s)
Amazon’s initial business plan was unusual; it did not expect to make a profit for four to five years
This “slow” growth caused stockholders to complain about the company not reaching profitability fast enough to justify investing in, or to even survive in the long-term
When the dot-com bubble burst at the start of the 21st century, destroying many e-companies in the process, Amazon survived, and grew on past the bubble burst to become a huge player in online sales
It finally turned its first profit in the fourth quarter of 2001: $5 million (i
, 1¢ per share), on revenues of more than $1 billion
This profit margin, though extremely modest, proved to skeptics that Bezos’ unconventional business model could succeed
[30] In 1999, Time magazine named Bezos the Person of the Year, recognizing the company’s success in popularizing online shopping
Barnes & Noble sued Amazon on May 12, 1997, alleging that Amazon’s claim to be “the world’s largest bookstore” was false
Barnes and Noble asserted, “[It] isn’t a bookstore at all
It’s a book broker
” The suit was later settled out of court, and Amazon continued to make the same claim
“[31] Walmart sued Amazon on October 16, 1998, alleging that Amazon had stolen Walmart’s trade secrets by hiring former Walmart executives
Although this suit was also settled out of court, it caused Amazon to implement internal restrictions and the reassignment of the former Walmart executives
Source:[32]
Amazon owns over 40 subsidiaries, including Zappos, Diapers
com, Kiva Systems, Goodreads, Teachstreet, and IMDb
As of February 2016, the board of directors is:[108]
Until June 30, 2006, typing ToysRUs
com into a browser would bring up Amazon
com’s “Toys & Games” tab; however, this relationship was terminated due to a lawsuit
[109] Amazon also hosted and managed the website for Borders bookstores but this ceased in 2008
[110] From 2001 until August 2011, Amazon hosted the retail website for Target
com operates retail websites for Sears Canada, bebe Stores, Marks & Spencer, Mothercare, and Lacoste
For a growing number of enterprise clients, currently including the UK merchants Marks & Spencer, Benefit Cosmetics’ UK entity, edeals
com, and Mothercare, Amazon provides a unified multichannel platform where a customer can interact with the retail website, standalone in-store terminals, or phone-based customer service agents
Amazon Web Services also powers AOL’s Shop@AOL
On October 18, 2011, Amazon
com announced a partnership with DC Comics for the exclusive digital rights to many popular comics, including Superman, Batman, Green Lantern, The Sandman, and Watchmen
The partnership has caused well-known bookstores like Barnes & Noble to remove these titles from their shelves
In November 2013, Amazon
com announced a partnership with the United States Postal Service to begin delivering orders on Sundays
The service, included with Amazon’s standard shipping rates, initiated in metropolitan areas of Los Angeles and New York due to the high-volume and inability to deliver timely, with plans to expand into Dallas, Houston, New Orleans, and Phoenix by 2014
Amazon’s global headquarters are in 14 buildings in Seattle’s South Lake Union neighborhood, developed primarily by Vulcan, Inc
from 2008 onward
The first 11 buildings were acquired from Vulcan in 2012 at a cost of $1
[114][115] The company was previously headquartered in rented space within the Pacific Medical Center, located in the city’s Beacon Hill neighborhood, from 1998 to 2011
Amazon is currently building a new three-tower complex in Seattle’s Denny Triangle neighborhood to serve as its new headquarters
The plan, designed by NBBJ and named “Rufus 2
0” after a dog who was part of the company in its early days,[118][119] was approved by the city of Seattle in 2012 and construction began the year after
[120][121] The first of the towers, Amazon Tower I (nicknamed Doppler), opened on December 14, 2015
The European headquarters are in Luxembourg’s capital, Luxembourg City
While much of Amazon’s software development occurs in Seattle, the company employs software developers in centers across the globe
Some of these sites are run by an Amazon subsidiary called A2Z Development
Fulfillment centers are located in the following cities, often near airports
These centers also provide warehousing and order-fulfillment for third-party sellers
[134] Amazon Fulfillment centers can also provide warehousing and order-fulfillment for third-party sellers for an extra fee
Third-party sellers can use Fulfillment by Amazon, or FBA, to sell on other platforms as well, such as eBay or their own websites
Warehouses are large and each has hundreds of employees
Employees are responsible for four basic tasks: unpacking and inspecting incoming goods; placing goods in storage and recording their location; picking goods from their computer recorded locations to make up an individual shipment; and shipping
A computer that records the location of goods and maps out routes for pickers plays a key role: employees carry hand-held computers which communicate with the central computer and monitor their rate of progress
A picker may walk 10 or more miles a day
In the United Kingdom initial staffing was provided by Randstad Holding and other temporary employment agencies
Some workers are accepted as Amazon employees and granted pension and shares of stock; others are dismissed
“When we have permanent positions available, we look to the top performing temporary associates to fill them
“[136] Development of a high level of automation is anticipated in the future following Amazon’s 2012 acquisition of Kiva Systems, a warehouse automation company
These US distribution centers have been closed: SDC Seattle Distribution Center, located in Georgetown, just south of downtown Seattle; Red Rock, Nevada; Chambersburg, Pennsylvania; Munster, Indiana; and McDonough, Georgia
[152][153][154] From 2000[155] until February 2001, there was an Amazon customer service based in The Hague, Netherlands
Amazon product lines include several media (books, DVDs, music CDs, videotapes, and software), apparel, baby products, consumer electronics, beauty products, gourmet food, groceries, health and personal-care items, industrial & scientific supplies, kitchen items, jewelry and watches, lawn and garden items, musical instruments, sporting goods, tools, automotive items and toys & games
The company launched amazon
com Auctions, a web auctions service, in March 1999
However, it failed to chip away at the large market share of the industry pioneer, eBay
Later, the company launched a fixed-price marketplace business, zShops, in September 1999, and the now defunct partnership with Sotheby’s, called Sothebys
com, in November
Auctions and zShops evolved into Amazon Marketplace, a service launched in November 2000 that let customers sell used books, CDs, DVDs, and other products alongside new items
As of October 2014, Amazon Marketplace is the largest of its kind, followed by similar marketplaces from Sears, Rakuten and Newegg
In August 2007, Amazon announced AmazonFresh, a grocery service offering perishable and nonperishable foods
Customers could have orders delivered to their homes at dawn or during a specified daytime window
Delivery was initially restricted to residents of Mercer Island, Washington, and was later expanded to several ZIP codes in Seattle proper
[158] AmazonFresh also operated pick-up locations in the suburbs of Bellevue and Kirkland from summer 2007 through early 2008
In 2012, Amazon announced the launch of Vine
com for buying green products, including groceries, household items, and apparel
[159] It is part of Quidsi, the company that Amazon bought in 2010 that also runs the sites Diapers
com (baby), Wag
com (pets), and YoYo
[159] Amazon also owns other e-commerce sites like Shopbop
com, and Zappos
Amazon’s Subscribe & Save program offers a discounted price on an item (usually sold in bulk), free shipping on every Subscribe & Save shipment, and automatic shipment of the item every one, two, three, or six months
In 2013, Amazon launched its site in India, amazon
It started with electronic goods[161] and planned to expand into fashion apparel, beauty, home essentials, and healthcare categories by the end of 2013
[citation needed] In July 2014, Amazon said it would invest $2 billion (Rs 12,000 crore) in India to expand business, after its largest Indian rival Flipkart announced $1 billion in funding
In 2014, Amazon sold 63% of all books bought online and 40% of all books sold overall
Fulfillment by Amazon Small and Light is a service introduced in 2015 that will[when?] provide fulfillment for small, light items from a center in Florence, Kentucky
The service will offer free standard shipping for small, light, low-value items offered on the site by third-party sellers
In 2015, a study by Survata found that 44% of respondents searching for products went directly to Amazon
In 2005, Amazon announced the creation of Amazon Prime, a membership offering free two-day shipping within the contiguous United States on all eligible purchases for a flat annual fee of $79 (equivalent to $96 in 2015),[167] as well as discounted one-day shipping rates
[168] Amazon launched the program in Germany, Japan, and the United Kingdom in 2007; in France (as “Amazon Premium”) in 2008, in Italy in 2011, and in Canada in 2013
Amazon Prime membership in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States[170] also provides Amazon Video, the instant streaming of selected movies and TV shows at no additional cost
[171] In November 2011, it was announced that Prime members have access to the Kindle Owners’ Lending Library, which allows users to borrow certain popular Kindle e-books for free reading on Kindle hardware, up to one book a month, with no due date
In March 2014, Amazon announced an increase in the annual membership fee for Amazon Prime, from $79 to $99
[167][173] Shortly after this change, Amazon announced Prime Music, a service whose members can get unlimited, ad-free streaming of over a million songs and access to curated playlists
[174] In November 2014, Amazon added Prime Photos, which allows unlimited photo storage in the users’ Amazon cloud drive
[175] In March 2015, Amazon was expanding that service as a paid offering to cover other kinds of content, and to users outside of its loyalty program
Unlimited Cloud Storage will let users get either unlimited photo storage or “unlimited everything” – covering all kinds of media from videos and music through to PDF documents – respectively for $11
99 per year
[176] Amazon also began offering free same-day delivery to Prime members in 14 U
metropolitan areas in May 2015
In April 2015, Amazon started a trial partnership with Audi and DHL in order to get deliveries directly into the trunks of Audi cars
This project is only available on the Munich (Germany) area to some Audi connected car users
On July 15, 2015, to commemorate its 20th birthday, Amazon celebrated “Amazon Prime Day”, which Amazon announced would feature deals for prime members that rivaled those on Black Friday
[179] Also that month Amazon Prime announced[180] that it would be signing Jeremy Clarkson, Richard Hammond, and James May, formerly of BBC’s Top Gear, to begin working on an untitled Amazon motoring show series due to be released in 2016
In December 2015, Amazon stated that “tens of millions” of people are Amazon Prime members
[181] Amazon Prime added 3 million members during the third week of December 2015
[182] It was also during December that Amazon announced the creation of the Streaming Partners Program,[183] an over-the-top subscription service that enables Amazon Prime subscribers to add additional streaming video services to their accounts
Among the programming providers involved in the program are Showtime, Starz (with additional content from sister network Encore), Lifetime Movie Club (containing recent original movie titles from Lifetime Television and Lifetime Movie Network), Smithsonian Earth, and Qello Concerts
In January 2016, Amazon Prime reached 54 million members according to a report from Consumer Intelligence Research Partners
In April 2016, Amazon announced same-day delivery would be expanded to include the areas of Charlotte, Cincinnati, Fresno, Louisville, Milwaukee, Nashville, Central New Jersey, Raleigh, Richmond, Sacramento, Stockton, and Tucson, bringing total coverage to 27 metro areas
In November 2007, Amazon launched Amazon Kindle, an e-book reader which downloads content over “Whispernet”, via Sprint’s EV-DO wireless network
The screen uses E Ink technology to reduce battery consumption and to provide a more legible display
As of July 2014, there are over 2
7 million e-books available for purchase at the Kindle Store
In September 2011, Amazon announced its entry into the tablet computer market by introducing the Kindle Fire, which runs a customized version of the operating system Android
The low pricing of Fire ($199 USD)[188] was widely perceived as a strategy backed by Amazon’s revenue from its content sales, to be stimulated by sales of the Fire
In September 2012, Amazon unveiled the second generation tablet, called the Kindle Fire HD
On September 25, 2013, Amazon
com unveiled its third generation tablet, called the Kindle Fire HDX
[189] In October 2013, the sixth generation Kindle was released
In April 2014, Amazon announced its Amazon Fire TV set-top box system, a device targeted to compete with such systems like Apple TV or Google’s Chromecast device
The Amazon set-top box allows for streaming videos from sites like Amazon’s own streaming service as well as others such as Netflix or Hulu
The device also supports voice search for movies, as well as gaming, which includes special versions of Minecraft, Asphalt 8, and The Walking Dead
[190][191] Amazon announced the Fire TV Stick in October 2014
The device replicates much of the functionality of the Fire TV
The company entered the smartphone market in July 2014 with the release of the Fire Phone
Amazon’s Honor System was launched in 2001 to allow customers to make donations or buy digital content, with Amazon collecting a percentage of the payment plus a fee; however, the service was discontinued in 2008[194] and replaced by Amazon Payments
Amazon Music, its own online music store, launched as Amazon MP3 in the US on September 25, 2007, selling downloads exclusively in MP3 format without digital rights management
[195] (In addition to copyright law, Amazon’s terms of use agreements restrict use of the MP3s, but Amazon does not use digital rights management (DRM) to enforce those terms
)[196] In addition to independent music labels, Amazon MP3 primarily sells music from the “Big 4” record labels: EMI, Universal, Warner Bros
Records, and Sony Music
Prior to the launch of this service, Amazon made an investment in Amie Street, a music store with a variable pricing model based on demand
[197] Amazon MP3 was the first online offering of DRM-free music from all four major record companies
[198][199][200][201]
In January 2008, Amazon began distributing its MP3 service to subsidiary websites worldwide[202] and, in December 2008, Amazon MP3 was made available in the UK
At the launch of Amazon MP3 in the UK, over 3 million Digital Rights Management (DRM)-free songs were made available to consumers, with prices that started at 59p, compared to Apple’s 79p starting price
In July 2010, Amazon announced that e-book sales for its Kindle reader outnumbered sales of hardcover books for the first time ever during the second quarter of 2010
Amazon claims that, during that period, 143 e-books were sold for every 100 hardcover books, including hardcovers for which there is no digital edition; and during late June and early July, sales rose to 180 digital books for every 100 hardcovers
On March 22, 2011, Amazon launched the Amazon Appstore for Android devices and the service was made available in over 200 countries
[205] Also in 2011, Amazon announced that it was releasing a Mac download store to offer dozens of games and hundreds of pieces of software for Apple computers
In January 2013, Amazon launched AutoRip, a digital music service
The service allows customers to receive a free MP3 copy of select CDs purchased through Amazon
[207] Amazon announced in September 2013 that it would launch Kindle MatchBook in October 2013, a similar service for books allowing customers who buy books from Amazon to acquire an e-book copy for free, or at a discounted price of US$3 or less
[208] MatchBook was launched on the company’s site on October 29, 2013
In October 2008, Amazon acquired game developer and distributor Reflexive Entertainment
[211] This studio continued to develop games for PC, Mac and Kindle eReaders under the brands Reflexive and Amazon Digital Services
Notable titles include Every Word for Kindle Paperwhite and Airport Mania for Kindle Fire, Android, iOS Windows and Mac
In August 2012, Amazon announced it would be adding a gaming department to its company titled Amazon Game Studios
Amazon stated that it would introduce “innovative, fun and well-crafted games” to consumers
[212] According to the Amazon Game Studios website, the last game that was launched by the department was Amazon’s first ever mobile game Air Patriots, released on November 1, 2012
On February 6, 2014, Amazon confirmed the acquisition of the gaming company Double Helix Games without any indication of the financial terms
The 75 Double Helix employees were to become Amazon employees and their Orange County, California, headquarters was to remain their operating base
Amazon informed the TechCrunch media company that it “acquired Double Helix as part of our [Amazon’s] ongoing commitment to build innovative games for customers” and confirmed that Double Helix’s current game roster and other future developments will receive support following the acquisition
On August 25, 2014, Amazon announced its intent to acquire the video game streaming website Twitch for $970 million
[215][216][217] The acquisition of Twitch is expected to help Amazon drive Internet traffic and potentially boost its Prime membership program, and promote its video ad and Fire TV set top box business
In August 2013 Amazon launched Amazon Art as an online marketplace selling original and limited edition fine art from selected galleries
[219] The initial 40000 items listed for sale included Norman Rockwell’s painting Willie Gillis: Package from Home priced at $4
85 million, L’Enfant a la tasse by Claude Monet for $1
45 million and Andy Warhol’s Sachiko for $45 000
Amazon Video is an Internet video on demand service by Amazon in the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, Austria and Germany
There are plans to offer the video streaming service in India sometime in 2015
In 2015, the Prime Instant Video exclusive series Transparent earned two Golden Globe Awards, and Transparent is the first series from a streaming service to win a Golden Globe for best series
In August 2005,[222] Amazon began selling products under its own private label, “Pinzon”; the trademark applications indicated that the label would be used for textiles, kitchen utensils, and other household goods
[222] In March 2007, the company applied to expand the trademark to cover a more diverse list of goods and to register a new design consisting of the “word PINZON in stylized letters with a notched letter “O” which appears at the “one o’clock” position”
[223] Coverage by the trademark grew to include items such as paints, carpets, wallpaper, hair accessories, clothing, footwear, headgear, cleaning products, and jewelry
[223] In September 2008, Amazon filed to have the name registered
USPTO has finished its review of the application, but Amazon has yet to receive an official registration for the name
AmazonBasics is a private-label product line, mainly consisting of consumer electronics accessories, but also including home and office accessories
[224] The line was launched in 2009
com exclusive is a product, usually a DVD, that is available exclusively on Amazon
Some DVDs are produced by the owner of the film or product, while others are produced by Amazon
The DVDs produced by Amazon are made using its “CreateSpace” program, in which DVDs are created, upon ordering, using DVD-R technology
The DVDs are then shipped about two days later
Some DVDs (such as the Jersey Shore Season 1 or The Unusuals Season 1) are released first as an Amazon
com exclusive for a limited time before being released elsewhere
On May 23, 2011, Amazon
com allowed customers to download Lady Gaga’s Born This Way album for 99 cents, resulting in some downloads being delayed, due to an extremely high volume of downloads
Amazon self publishing services through one of its companies, CreateSpace, a member of the Amazon group of companies
Amazon launched Amazon Web Services (AWS) in 2002, which provides programmatic access to latent features on its website
In November 2005, Amazon began testing Amazon Mechanical Turk, an application programming interface (API) allowing programs to dispatch tasks to human processors
In March 2006, Amazon launched an online storage service called Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3)
An unlimited number of data objects, from 1 byte to 5 terabytes in size, can be stored in S3 and distributed via HTTP or BitTorrent
The service charges monthly fees for data stored and transferred
In 2006, Amazon introduced Amazon Simple Queue Service (Amazon SQS), a distributed queue messaging service, and product wikis (later folded into Amapedia) and discussion forums for certain products using guidelines that follow standard message board conventions
Also in 2006, Amazon introduced Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2), a virtual site farm,[228] allowing users to use the Amazon infrastructure to run applications ranging from running simulations to web hosting
In 2008, Amazon improved the service by adding Elastic Block Store (EBS), offering persistent storage for Amazon EC2 instances and Elastic IP addresses, and offering static IP addresses designed for dynamic cloud computing
Amazon introduced SimpleDB, a database system, allowing users of its other infrastructure to utilize a high-reliability, high-performance database system
In 2008, Amazon graduated EC2 from beta to “Generally Available” and added support for the Microsoft Windows platform
Amazon continues to refine and add services to AWS, adding such services as Scalable DNS service (Amazon Route 53), payment handling, and AWS specific APIs for its Mechanical Turk service
In August 2012, Amazon announced Amazon Glacier, a low-cost online file storage web service that provides reliable data archiving, storage, and backup
In November 2012 at AWS’ web developer conference in Las Vegas it announced it was targeting large companies as cloud storage clients
It will further cut its S3 prices to customers with long-term contracts in its “Redshift” storage service launching in 2013
In March 2013 Amazon announced its Mobile Ads API for developers
The new Ads API can be used on apps distributed on any Android platform as long as the app is also available on Amazon’s Appstore
As of December 2014, Amazon Web Services operated 1
4 Million servers across 11 regions and 28 availability zones
Amazon Publishing is Amazon’s publishing unit
It is composed of AmazonEncore, AmazonCrossing, Montlake Romance, Thomas & Mercer, 47 North, and Powered by Amazon
Additional imprints are planned
Launched in 2005, Amazon Shorts offered exclusive short stories and non-fiction pieces from best-selling authors for immediate download
By June 2007, the program had over 1,700 pieces and was adding about 50 new pieces per week
The program was discontinued on June 1, 2010
Amazon also created “channels” to benefit certain causes
In 2004, Amazon allowed customers to donate $5 to $200 to the campaigns of 2004 US presidential hopefuls, providing links that raised $300,000 for the candidates
[233] Amazon has periodically reactivated a Red Cross donation channel after crises such as Hurricane Sandy, Hurricane Katrina, and the 2004 earthquake and tsunami in the Indian Ocean
By January 2005, nearly 200,000 people had donated over $15
7 million in the US
Amazon Smile, accessed by going to smile
com when normally shopping, allows Amazon to donate 0
5% of the sale price to a selected charity as its sponsor
Amazon Local is a daily deal service launched in June 2011 in Boise, Idaho
[236] As of 2013[update], Amazon Local offers daily deals to over 100 regions in 36 U
Amazon Local also acts as a deal aggregator; some of the deals are actually offered through LivingSocial, a firm in which Amazon has heavily invested
It was launched gradually in the United Kingdom on August 29, 2012, starting in London and expanding to more towns and cities
On December 18, 2015, Amazon Local will stop selling daily deals however purchased deals will remain valid according to its terms
In July 2009, Amazon
com launched an AmazonWireless website,[240] which offers cellular devices and service plans for Verizon Wireless, AT&T, Sprint and T-Mobile in the US
AmazonFresh is a home grocery delivery service first trialed in 2007, and later made available in Seattle, Los Angeles, San Francisco, California, San Diego, Brooklyn, New York and Philadelphia, PA
Amazon Prime Pantry is a similar service covering the 48 contiguous United States, allowing the order of up to 45 pounds of dry goods and non-perishable groceries for a flat delivery fee
On March 31, 2015, Amazon
com announced that it was expanding Amazon Dash to include an Amazon Dash Button and a Dash Replenishment Service
60 Minutes announced on December 1, 2013 that Amazon Prime Air was a possible future delivery service expected to be in development for several more years
In concept, the process would use drones to deliver small packages (less than five pounds) within 30 minutes by flying short distances (10–20 km) from local Amazon Fulfillment Centers
[244][245] In the U
, the project will require the Federal Aviation Administration to approve commercial use of unmanned drones
Such approval could be in place as early as 2015, and Amazon expects to be ready at that time
[247][248] In July 2014, it was revealed the company was developing its 8th and 9th drone prototypes, some that could fly 50 miles an hour and carry 5-pound packages, and had applied to the FAA to test them
In December 2014, Amazon announced that as a benefit to Prime members, parts of Manhattan, in New York City, could get products delivered to them within one hour for a fee of $7
99, or within two hours for no additional fee
25,000 daily essential products are available with this delivery service
[250] In February 2015, the service was extended to include all of Manhattan
[251] It has since been expanded in the United States to include parts of Chicago, Miami, Baltimore, Dallas, Atlanta, Austin, Nashville and San Antonio
[252][253][254] Outside of the U
, it has expanded to London,[255] Birmingham, UK
,[256] Newcastle, Manchester,[257] Liverpool,[258] Milan[259] and Tokyo
Amazon Supply, launched in 2012, offers industrial and scientific components and maintenance, repair and operations (MRO) supplies
[67] Amazon Supply was developed based on experience operating Smallparts
com, acquired in 2005
(The Smallparts
com brand was discontinued with the launch of Amazon Supply
) While Amazon Supply uses the same order fulfillment and distribution system as Amazon
com, its online store provides services to customers in more than 220 countries
In January 2007, Amazon launched Amapedia, a now-defunct wiki for user-generated content to replace ProductWiki, and the video on demand service Amazon Unbox
[262] Also in 2007, Amazon launched Amazon Vine, which allows reviewers free access to prerelease products from vendors in return for posting a review, as well as a payment service specifically targeted at developers, Amazon FPS
[citation needed]
IMDb and Amazon launched a website called SoundUnwound for browsing music metadata with wiki-like user contribution in September 2007; this data was also used for Amazon’s Artist Pages
[263] Soundunwound ceased existence on June 18, 2012, and the site redirected to Amazon
Amazon Connect enables authors to post remarks on their book pages to customers
Amazon Webstore allowed businesses to create custom e-commerce online stores using Amazon technology
Sellers selected the category for their business, and paid a commission of 1-2%, plus credit-card processing fees and fraud protection, and a subscription fee depending on the bundle option for an unlimited number of listings
[264] Amazon has chosen a limited number of companies to become an implementation solution provider for them
[265][266] The Amazon Webstore is no longer available to new merchants
In August 2014, Amazon launched a credit card reader
Merchants can use it to conduct payments through a smartphone or tablet
In 2014, Amazon launched a feature called “make an offer” that allows customers to place a bid to 3rd party sellers, rather than buy outright
However, unlike eBay, the feature is not an auction but rather a one-to-one bid where the customer haggles privately with the seller
In January 2015, Amazon announced its own email and scheduling service dubbed WorkMail developed by Amazon Web Services, the cloud computing unit of Amazon Inc
The Amazon email service is expected to bring in $10 billion extra revenue to the company
In March 2015, Amazon launched a new on-demand service, Amazon Home Services for all sorts of housework
In April 2015, Amazon rolled out a new travel site called Amazon Destinations, which focuses on helping customers find “getaway destinations” within driving distance of their homes
Currently Amazon Destinations features hotel selections in three U
metro areas: L
, New York and Seattle
In October 2015, Amazon announced a new handmade marketplace called Handmade By Amazon, already having 5,000 sellers from 60 countries and 80,000 items for sale
The platform is designed for artisans to sell their good directly to the public, similar to the platform Etsy
On November 2, 2015, Amazon opened its first physical retail store, a bookstore in the University Village shopping center in Seattle
The store, known as Amazon Books, has prices matched to those found on the Amazon website and integrate online reviews into the store’s shelves
[273][274][275]
Amazon released branded semiconductors to home equipment designers who are working on Internet-of-Things devices, WiFi routers and other smart home appliances
The chips come from Annapurna Labs, which Amazon purchased in 2015 for a rumored $350 million
On January 7, 2016, the company announced that its Alpine chipset was available for a wide range of applications
Amazon Studios is Amazon
com’s division that develops television shows, movies and comics from online submissions and crowd-sourced feedback
[277] It was started in late 2010
[277] Content would be distributed through Amazon Video, Amazon’s digital video streaming service, and a competitor to services like Netflix and Hulu
[278] For film, Warner Bros
is a partner
Companies owned by Amazon that operate under their own brand
com is a seller and producer of spoken audio entertainment, information, and educational programming on the Internet
Audible sells digital audiobooks, radio, and TV programs, and audio versions of magazines and newspapers
Through its production arm, Audible Studios, Audible has also become the world’s largest producer of downloadable audiobooks
On January 31, 2008 Amazon announced it would buy Audible for about $300 million
The deal closed in March 2008, and Audible became a subsidiary of Amazon
Brilliance Audio is an audiobook publisher founded in 1984 by Michael Snodgrass in Grand Haven, Michigan
[281] The company produced its first 8 audio titles in 1985
[281] The company was purchased by Amazon in 2007 for an undisclosed amount
[69][282] At the time of the acquisition Brilliance was producing 12-15 new titles a month
[282] It operates as an independent company within Amazon
In 1984, Brilliance Audio invented a technique for recording twice as much on the same cassette
[283] The technique involved recording on each of the two channels of each stereo track
[283] It has been credited with revolutionizing the burgeoning audiobook market in the mid-1980s since it made unabridged books affordable
ComiXology is a cloud-based digital comics platform with over 200 million comic downloads as of September 2013
It offers a selection of more than 40,000 comic books and graphic novels across Android, iOS, Kindle Fire, and Windows 8 devices, and over the Internet
Amazon bought the company in April 2014
Goodreads is a “social cataloging” website founded in December 2006 and launched in January 2007 by Otis Chandler, a software engineer and entrepreneur, and Elizabeth Chandler
The website allows individuals to freely search Goodreads’ extensive user-populated database of books, annotations, and reviews
Users can sign up and register books to generate library catalogs and reading lists
They can also create their own groups of book suggestions and discussions
In December 2007, the site had over 650,000 members and over 10,000,000 books had been added
Amazon bought the company in March 2013
Shelfari is a social cataloging website for books
Shelfari users build virtual bookshelves of the titles which they own or have read, and they can rate, review, tag, and discuss their books
Users can also create groups that other members may join, create discussions, and talk about books, or other topics
Recommendations can be sent to friends on the site for what books to read
Amazon bought the company in August 2008
[285] Shelfari continued to function as an independent book social network within the Amazon
com family of sites until 2016, when that January, Amazon announced on Shelfari
com that it would be merging Shelfari with Goodreads and closing down Shelfari
Beijing Century Joyo Courier Services is a subsidiary of Amazon and it applied for a Freight forwarding license with the US Maritime Commission
Amazon is also building out its logistics in trucking and air freight to potentially compete with UPS and FedEx
The domain amazon
com attracted at least 615 million visitors annually by 2008
[290] Amazon attracts over 130 million customers to its US website per month by the start of 2016
[291] The company has also invested heavily on a massive amount of server capacity for its website, especially to handle the excessive traffic during the December Christmas holiday season
Results generated by Amazon’s search engine are partly determined by promotional fees
Amazon’s localized storefronts, which differ in selection and prices, are differentiated by top-level domain and country code:
Amazon allows users to submit reviews to the web page of each product
Reviewers must rate the product on a rating scale from one to five stars
Amazon provides a badging option for reviewers which indicate the real name of the reviewer (based on confirmation of a credit card account) or which indicate that the reviewer is one of the top reviewers by popularity
Customers may comment or vote on the reviews, indicating whether they found a review helpful to them
If a review is given enough “helpful” hits, it appears on the front page of the product
In 2010, Amazon was reported as being the largest single source of Internet consumer reviews
When publishers asked Bezos why Amazon would publish negative reviews, he defended the practice by claiming that amazon
com was “taking a different approach
we want to make every book available—the good, the bad, and the ugly
to let truth loose”
Although reviews are attributed to the credit-card name of the reviewer, there have been cases of positive reviews being written and posted by a public relations company on behalf of its clients,[296] and instances of writers using pseudonyms to leave negative reviews of their rivals’ works
Following the listing of Untouchable: The Strange Life and Tragic Death of Michael Jackson, a disparaging biography of Michael Jackson by Randall Sullivan, his fans, organized via social media as “Michael Jackson’s Rapid Response Team to Media Attacks” bombarded Amazon with negative reviews and negative ratings of positive reviews
“Search Inside the Book” is a feature which allows customers to search for keywords in the full text of many books in the catalog
[299][300] The feature started with 120,000 titles (or 33 million pages of text) on October 23, 2003
[301] There are currently about 300,000 books in the program
Amazon has cooperated with around 130 publishers to allow users to perform these searches
To avoid copyright violations, amazon
com does not return the computer-readable text of the book
Instead, it returns a picture of the matching page, instructs the web browser to disable printing, and puts limits on the number of pages in a book a single user can access
Additionally, customers can purchase online access to some of the same books via the “Amazon Upgrade” program
Amazon derives many of its sales from third-party sellers who sell products on Amazon (around 40% in 2008)
[302] Associates receive a commission for referring customers to Amazon by placing links to Amazon on their websites, if the referral results in a sale
Worldwide, Amazon has “over 900,000 members” in its affiliate programs
[303] In the middle of 2014, the Amazon Affiliate Program is used by 1
2% of all websites, and it is the second most popular advertising network after Google Ads
[304] It is frequently used by websites and non-profits to provide a way for supporters to earn them commission
[305] Amazon reported over 1
3 million sellers sold products through Amazon’s websites in 2007
Unlike eBay, Amazon sellers do not have to maintain separate payment accounts; all payments are handled by Amazon
Associates can access the Amazon catalog directly on their websites by using the Amazon Web Services (AWS) XML service
A new affiliate product, aStore, allows Associates to embed a subset of Amazon products within another website, or linked to another website
In June 2010, Amazon Seller Product Suggestions was launched (rumored to be internally called “Project Genesis”) to provide more transparency to sellers by recommending specific products to third-party sellers to sell on Amazon
Products suggested are based on customers’ browsing history
The Amazon sales rank (ASR) provides an indication of the popularity of a product sold on any Amazon locale
It is a relative indicator of popularity that is updated hourly
Effectively, it is a “best sellers list” for the millions of products stocked by Amazon
[307] While the ASR has no direct effect on the sales of a product, it is used by Amazon to determine which products to include in its best-sellers lists
[307] Products that appear in these lists enjoy additional exposure on the Amazon website, and this may lead to an increase in sales
In particular, products that experience large jumps (up or down) in their sales ranks may be included within Amazon’s lists of “movers and shakers”; such a listing provides additional exposure that might lead to an increase in sales
[308] For competitive reasons, Amazon does not release actual sales figures to the public
However, Amazon has now begun to release point of sale data via the Nielsen BookScan service to verified authors
[309] While the ASR has been the source of much speculation by publishers, manufacturers and marketers, Amazon itself does not release the details of its sales rank calculation algorithm
Some companies have analyzed Amazon sales data to generate sales estimates based on the ASR,[310] though Amazon states:
Please keep in mind that our sales rank figures are simply meant to be a guide of general interest for the customer and not definitive sales information for publishers—we assume you have this information regularly from your distribution sources
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Information Management (IM) support Amazon’s business strategy
The core technology that keeps Amazon running is Linux-based
As of 2005[update], Amazon had the world’s three largest Linux databases, with capacities of 7
5 TB, and 24
The central data warehouse of Amazon is made of 28 Hewlett Packard servers with four CPUs per node running Oracle database software
Amazon’s technology architecture handles millions of back-end operations every day, as well as queries from more than half a million third-party sellers
With hundreds of thousands of people sending their credit card numbers to Amazon’s servers every day, security becomes a major concern
Amazon employs Netscape Secure Commerce Server using the Secure Socket Layer protocol which stores all credit card details in a separate database
The company also records data on customer buyer behavior which enables them to offer or recommend to an individual specific item, or bundles of items based upon preferences demonstrated through purchases or items visited
On January 31, 2013 Amazon experienced an outage that lasted approximately 49 minutes, leaving its site inaccessible to some customers
On May 5, 2014 Amazon unveiled a partnership with Twitter
Twitter users can link their accounts to an Amazon account and automatically add items to their shopping carts by responding to any tweet with an Amazon product link bearing the hashtag #AmazonCart
Customers never leave the Twitter feed, and the product is waiting for them when they go to the Amazon website
Amazon employs a multi-level e-commerce strategy
Amazon started off by focusing on Business-to-Consumer relationships between itself and its customers, and Business-to-Business relationships between itself and its suppliers but it then moved to incorporate Customer-to-Business transactions as it realized the value of customer reviews as part of the product descriptions
It now also facilitates customer to customer with the provision of the Amazon marketplace which act as an intermediary to facilitate consumer to consumer transactions
The company lets almost anyone sell almost anything using its platform
In addition to affiliate program that lets anybody post Amazon links and earn a commission on click through sales, there is now a program which let those affiliates build entire websites based on Amazon’s platform
Some other large e-commerce sellers use Amazon to sell their products in addition to selling them through their own websites
The sales are processed through Amazon
com and end up at individual sellers for processing and order fulfillment and Amazon leases space for these retailers
Small sellers of used and new goods go to Amazon Marketplace to offer goods at a fixed price
[316] Amazon also employs the use of drop shippers or meta sellers
These are members or entities that advertise goods on Amazon who order these goods direct from other competing websites but usually from other Amazon members
These meta sellers may have millions of products listed, have large transaction numbers and are grouped alongside other less prolific members giving them credibility as just someone who has been in business for a long time
Markup is anywhere from 50% to 100% and sometimes more, these sellers maintain that items are in stock when the opposite is true
As Amazon increases their dominance in the marketplace these drop shippers have become more and more commonplace in recent years
[citation needed]
On 2 February 2016, General Growth Properties’ CEO, Sandeep Mathrani, during a year-end conference call with investors, analysts and reporters mentioned that Amazon plans to roll out 300 to 400 bookstores around the country
This was an unconfirmed comment, however due to the source, a media frenzy ensued
[317] In November 2015, Amazon opened its first physical bookstore location
It is aptly named, Amazon Books and is located in University Village in Seattle
The store is 5,500 square feet and prices for all products match those on its website
Over the 2000-2010 decade, Amazon has developed a customer base of around 30 million people
com is primarily a retail site with a sales revenue model
Amazon makes its money by taking a small percentage of the sale price of each item that is sold through its website
Amazon also allows companies to advertise their products by paying to be listed as featured products
Since its founding, the company has attracted criticism and controversy from multiple sources over its actions
These include: luring customers away from the site’s brick and mortar competitors,[319] poor warehouse conditions for workers; anti-unionization efforts; Amazon Kindle remote content removal; taking public subsidies; its “1-Click patent” claims; anti-competitive actions;[320] price discrimination; various decisions over whether to censor or publish content such as the WikiLeaks website; LGBT book sales rank;[321][322] and works containing libel, facilitating dogfight, cockfight, or pedophile activities
In December 2011, Amazon faced backlash from small businesses for running a one-day deal to promote its new Price Check app
Shoppers who used the app to check prices in a brick-and-mortar store were offered a 5% discount to purchase the same item from Amazon
[323] Companies like Groupon, eBay, and Taap
it countered Amazon’s promotion by offering $10 off from their products
[324][325] The company has also faced accusations of putting undue pressure on suppliers to maintain and extend its profitability
One effort to squeeze the most vulnerable book publishers was known within the company as the Gazelle Project, after Bezos suggested, according to Brad Stone, “that Amazon should approach these small publishers the way a cheetah would pursue a sickly gazelle
“[293] In July 2014 the Federal Trade Commission launched a lawsuit against the company alleging it was promoting in-app purchases to children, which were being transacted without parental consent
Amazon has attracted widespread criticism by both current employees, which refer to themselves as Amazonians,[327] and former employees,[328][329] as well as the media and politicians for poor working conditions
In 2011 it was publicized that at the Breinigsville, Pennsylvania warehouse, workers had to carry out work in 100 °F (38 °C) heat, resulting in employees becoming extremely uncomfortable and suffering from dehydration and collapse
Loading-bay doors were not opened to allow in fresh air as “managers were worried about theft”
Amazon’s initial response was to pay for an ambulance to sit outside on call to cart away overheated employees
Some workers, “pickers”, who travel the building with a trolley and a handheld scanner “picking” customer orders can walk up to 15 miles during their workday, and if they fall behind on their targets, they can be reprimanded
The handheld scanners feed back to the employee real-time information on how fast or slowly they are doing; the scanners also serve to allow Team Leads and Area Managers to track the specific locations of employees and how much “idle time” they gain when not working
[330][331] In a German television report broadcast in February 2013, journalists Diana Löbl and Peter Onneken conducted a covert investigation at the distribution center of Amazon in the town of Bad Hersfeld in the German state of Hessen
The report highlights the behavior of some of the security guards, themselves being employed by a third party company, who apparently either had a Neo-nazi background or deliberately dressed in Neo-Nazi apparel, and who were intimidating foreign and temporary female workers at its distribution centres
The third party security company involved was delisted by Amazon as a business contact shortly after that report
[332][333][334][335][336]
In March 2015, it was reported in The Verge that Amazon will be removing 18 month long non-compete clauses from its US employment contracts for hourly-paid workers, after criticism that it was acting unreasonably in preventing such employees from finding other work
Even short-term temporary workers have to sign contracts that prohibit them from working at any company where they would “directly or indirectly” support any good or service that competes with those they helped support at Amazon, for 18 months after leaving Amazon, even if they are fired or made redundant
A substantial New York Times article published on August 16, 2015 described evidence of an intimidating and confrontational working culture for the company’s office workers
In an effort to boost employee morale, on November 2, 2015 Amazon announced that it would be extending 6 weeks of paid leave for new mothers and fathers
This change includes birth parents and adoptive parents, and can be applied in conjunction with existing maternity leave and medical leave for new mothers
com lobbies the United States federal government and state governments on issues such as the enforcement of sales taxes on online sales, transportation safety, privacy and data protection, and intellectual property
According to regulatory filings, Amazon
com focuses its lobbying on the US Congress, the Federal Communications Commission, and the Federal Reserve
com spent $500,000 on lobbying in the second quarter of 2010, $630,000 in the first quarter of 2011, and $450,000 in the second quarter of that year
com was a corporate member of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) until it dropped membership following protests at its shareholders’ meeting May 24, 2012
The initiative Choice in eCommerce was founded on May 8, 2013 by several online retailers in Berlin, Germany
[342][343][344][345][346][347][348][349][350] The cause was, in the view of the initiative, sales bans and online restrictions by individual manufacturers
The dealers felt cut off from their main sales channel and thus deprived them the opportunity to use online platforms like Amazon, eBay or Rakuten in a competitive market for the benefit of their customers
In 2014, Amazon expanded its lobbying practices as it prepared to lobby the Federal Aviation Administration to approve its drone delivery program, hiring the Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld lobbying firm in June
[351] Amazon and its lobbyists have visited with Federal Aviation Administration officials and aviation committees in Washington, D
to explain its plans to deliver packages
A number of companies have been started and founded by former Amazon employees
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XsESpJh9hR0

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